# Lesson Note Format

## Lesson Note for Basic 6

### Learning Objectives:

By the end of the lesson learners should be able to:
1. #### Explain the meaning of Equivalent Ratio

Equivalent ratios are ratios that have direct proportional change when you compare either by multiplication or division.

### Rationale:

The knowledge of ratio is being used in our daily lives such as cooking, construction. Equivalent ratios are ratios that have a directly proportional change, hence the knowledge will help them to jay learning foundation for proportion.

### Prerequisite/ Previous knowledge:

Fraction (Division) and Multiplication.

Candles.

### Reference Materials:

National Mathematics Centre Teaching Module for Primary School Six.

### Lesson Development:

##### LEARNING POINTS
INTRODUCTION
full class session (10mins)
The teacher introduces the lesson by giving two pupils (Musa and Aisha) candles as shown in the table below respectively.

 Musa ? 2 3 4 5 ? ? Aisha ? 6 9 12 15 ? ?
Some pupils compare by finding the difference (candles), an example of column one, 6 - 2 = 4
If Musa has 2 candles, Aisha has 4 more candles.
Comparing quantities by difference.
The teacher asks all the pupils to compare the number of candles given to Musa and Aisha for all the columns. Some pupils compare by division i.e (6/2) candles = 3, Aisha's candles are 3 times that of Musa for the first column. Comparing quantities by division.
The teacher asks pupils to explain what they have done.
The teacher asks pupils to look at what they have done and complete the table considering how they compare the candles given to Musa and Aisha.
Pupils explain that they have substracted Musa's candles from that of Aisha and also divided Aisha's candle by Musa's candle for all the columns.
The teacher then asks, "which is the easier way to compare"?

The teacher comments on what the pupils have done by telling them, they have compared the candles in two ways i.e by Subtraction and Division. He then explains the meaning of equivalent ratios as ratios that have direct proportional change when you compare either by division or multiplication.
In order to complete the table, To complete the table, it is easier to compare by division and multiplication The concept of equivalent ratio.
Therefore the ratio of Aisha's candles to Musa's is directly proportional i.e 3:1. The sign indicates ratio and it is read as ratio 3 to 1. We can also say that the ratio of Musa's to that of Aisha is 1:3 or 1 to 3

It means that for every 1 that Musa has, Aisha has 3. We can also write it as 1/3
The pupil's listen and copy the definition of equivalent ratio into their note. Pupils read the expression as
ratio 1 to 3 or 1: 3
Expression of ratio.
DEVELOPMENT
Step 1. Group Work (2mins)
The teacher groups the pupils into 5 and names the the groups' A to E with these numbers of pupils per group respectively
2, 4, 6, 8, 10.
Pupils arrange themselves into their various groups.
STEP 2
(Partial grouping)
(2mins)
The teacher asks pupils to share the candles she brought to the class, 2 candles to each pupil. The pupils share the candle among themselves.
The teacher asks the pupil to compare the quantities of candles in their various groups with the numbers of pupils. The pupils make a comparison i.e the quantities of candles and the number of pupils in group A, i.e 4 candles to 2 pupils 4:2 = 2:1 To observe how quantities change.
STEP 3
(group work) (5mins)
To observe how quantities change. Some of the pupils may observe that as the number of pupils is increasing in the group, the number of candles is also increasing i.e When 2 pupils get 4 candles, 4 pupils get 8 candles. hence the increase of one quantity results in the increase of the other. To observe how quantities change.
STEP 4
(Group work)
(5mins).
The teacher summarises the activities on candles by asking the pupils what they have learnt sharing the candles.

The teacher concluded by telling the pupils that their observations were correct. The ratio of the candles to the number of pupils was directly proportional hence the meaning of equivalent ratio.
Some of the pupils respond by telling the teacher that as the candles for Musa is increasing, that of Aisha is also increasing. Then as the number of pupils is increasing, the number of candles was also increasing.
EVALUATION
Simplification of ratio(Individual)
(6mins).
The teacher gives the pupils the following exercises:
1. A bread maker has 750g of flour to be added to 500g of butter and 600g of sugar to make bread. Find the ratio of;
1. Butter to Flour
2. Four to Sugar
3. Butter to Sugar

2. If there are 30 girls and 20 boys in a class, what is the ratio of me = girls to the boys?.
The pupils attempt the question:
1. Expected Responses
1. Butter to Sugar
500g: 750g
50: 75
10: 15
2: 5

2. Flour to Sugar
750g: 600g
75: 60
15: 12
5: 4

3. Butter to Sugar
500g: 600g
50: 60
15: 12
5: 6

2. The ratio of girls to boys
30: 20
2: 3
Pupils ability to solve problems on ratio
Conclusion
(5mins)
The teacher summarizes the lesson base on the pupil's response to the above questions to enhance pupils deeper understanding and asks a pupil that gots' it right to also explain.

The teacher concludes by clarifying areas of confusion and also informs the pupils that ratios can also be simplified even though they are equivalent.
Pupils listening and exchange ideas.

Pupils ask questions on the area they find difficult and quickly go through the lesson with the teacher.
A deeper understanding of equivalent ratio.
ASSIGNMENT
1. Pencils are sold at 30 for \$25. Kemisola bought 90 pencils. How much did she pay?
2. 24 cans of vegetable oil weigh 36 kg. What is the weight of 72 cans?
3. Express each of these as a ratio reduced to the lowest term.
• 12 grams: 48 grams
• 25 mins: 1 h 20 mins
.
Pupils solve other problems on ratio. Improving their level of understanding of ratio.