WOODWORK (GH)

WAEC SYLLABUS ON WOODWORK (GH)

PREAMBLE

The course in Woodwork at the Senior High School level is to enable students gain knowledge inthe art and craft of woodworking and provide with basic and necessary skills for technologicalgrowth. At this level, the knowledge to be acquired will act as an avenue for further growthduring and after school.
It is intended to give candidates the opportunity to display detailed knowledge of, and skills in
(1) technical drawing and designing;
(2) practical work;
(3) methods and principles of construction;
(4) quality control, estimation and costing.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

Candidates are expected to demonstrate:
(1) creative ability, mental and practical skills in the use of hand and machine tools forconstruction of basic items in wood and related materials;
(2) good basic knowledge of design and reading of working drawings;
(3) ability to plan and follow a sequence of work operations which are necessary to lead tosuccessful completion of projects;
(4) awareness of problems relating to wood and the wood industry;
(5) functional skills capable of providing a means of livelihood in woodworking.

ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVES

(1) Candidates should be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of:

(a) terminologies used in woodwork;
(b) materials used in woodwork;
(c) care and maintenance of handtools and machines;
(d) safety precautions at the workshop;
(e) principles of designing and drawing;
(f) methods and principles of construction.

(2) Candidates should be able to demonstrate the ability to:

(a) follow a given design brief to produce working drawings;
(b) interpret working drawings;
(c) use tools, equipment and materials to carry out practical operations insequential order;
(d) prepare surfaces and apply appropriate finishes.

(3) Candidates should be able to:

(a) compare features of different items and make comments or judgment, contrast,justify, support or criticize a job;
(b) write appraisal report on artefacts.

STRUCTURE AND SCHEME OF EXAMINATION

There will be three papers, Papers 1, 2 and 3 all of which must be taken. Papers 1 and 2 willbe a composite paper to be taken at one sitting.

PAPER 1:

Will consist of forty multiple-choice objective questions all of which must beanswered within 40 minutes for 40 marks.

PAPER 2:

Will consist of theory and design paper of two sections, Sections A and B, to betaken within 2 hours, 20 minutes.

Section A

will be short structured questions put into three parts, Parts I, II andIII as follows:
● Part I will be for candidates in Ghana only.
● Part II will be for candidates in Nigeria, Sierra Leone and The Gambia.
● Part III will be for all candidates. It will comprise of two questions out ofwhich all candidates will be required to answer one.

Section B

will comprise design and drawing questions, all of which must beanswered within 1 hour 40 minutes for 40 marks.

PAPER 3:

Will be a practical test lasting 3 hours. Candidates will be required to makea test piece for which the appropriate drawings will be supplied. It will carry100 marks.


DETAILED SYLLABUS

A. PRACTICAL

1. The practical activities would require the use of
(1) common hand tools;
(2) portable power tools and basic woodworking machines;
(3) different joints and shapes;
(4) nails, screws and other means of fastening.
2. Candidates will be required to work from dimensioned sketches,
written descriptions or scaled drawings. They are expected to be able toconstruct the following joints:
(a) widening joints – e.g. plain/simple butt, dowelled, tongue and grooved,rebated butt, loose tongue, slot screw.
(b) angle joints - for box-like construction, e.g. common and lapped dovetail,pin/comb/finger, dowel, housing, halving and plain mitre.
(c) Framing joints – e.g. Mortice and tenon, bridle, mitre, dowel andhalving.
(d) Candidates will also be expected to be able to performthe following operations:
(i) shaping – e.g chamfering, rounding, tapering, beveling andsplaying;
(ii) assembling and finishing – e.g testing for squareness,parallelism, use of diagonals, trial assembly, cramping,preparation of surfaces, application of finishes.

B. THEORY

TOPICSCONTENTSNOTES

1. WORKSHOP SAFETY

1.1 Personal SafetyUses of safety equipment; firstaid box and its use. Saftey toprevent injury to self and othersin the workshop, wearing ofprotective clothing (e.g goggles,aprons/overalls, masks, boots,helmets, gloves, respirators). Types of safety measures
1.2 Safety relating to hand tools,machines and workshopenvironment.workshop environment, e.g.lighting, ventilation, exit doors. Safety measures in relation to theuse of hand tools, machines,electrical appliances; state of
1.3 Safety devicesblock, jigs, fences. Knowledge of types of safety
1.4 First Aid (a) Knowledge of the contents of aFirst Aid box (i.e lint, scissors,bandages, plaster, methylated spirit,iodine, cotton wool, forceps).
(b) Knowledge of the procedure foradministration of first aid for cuts, burns, and electric shock.

2. TOOLS

2.1 Hand Toods Identification, classification, sketching,sharpening, maintenance, storage,safety and use of the following:-
(a) Measuring and marking-out tools:rules, calipers, gauges.
(b) Cutting and shaping tools: saws,planes, chisels, spokesshaves.
(c) Abrading and scraping tools: files,scrapers.
(d) Boring tools - braces, bits, drills,gimlet, bradawl.
(e) Percussion and impelling tools:hammers, screwdrivers, mallet.
(f) Holding and suppoting tools:cramps, cutting-board, vices, pincers.
2.2 Portable PowerTools Identification, maintenance, safety anduses of the following:-
(a) Planes - power hand planer, routerplaner.
(b) Saws - Jig saw, circular saw.
(c) Sanders - orbital sander, beltsander, drum sander, disc sander.
(d) Hand drill;
(e) Spray gun.
2.3 Special PurposeHand Tools Identification, classification,sketching,maintenance, safety and uses of thefollowing:
(a) Planes: plough plane, compassplane, router plane.
(b) Saws: coping saw, fret saw, bowsaw, compass saw, pad saw, juniorhacksaw.
(c) Boring bits: expansion bit,forstner bit, countersink bit, augerbit, centre bit, gimlet, brawdal, twist drill.
(d) Shapers: scrapers, rasps, surform,files.

3. WOODWORKINGMACHINES

3.1 Types of Machines Identification, functions of parts, usesand safety precautions relating to thelisted machines:
(a) Grinding wheel.
(b) Circular saw bench, cross-cutsaw, bandsaw, dimension saw.
(c) Surfacer or jointer, thicknesser.
(d) Chain, chisels, horizontal borer.
(e) Lathe, spindle moudler, drumsander, jig saw, router.
(f) Drilling machine.
3.2 Safety Aids Uses of guards, jigs, fences, pushsticks, push blocks, gauges.

4. MATERIALS

4.1 Timber
4.1.1 Classification
(i) Hardwoods and softwoods
(ii) Differences between hardwoodsand structure.
4.1.2 Parts of a tree (i) Identification and functions of theparts of a growing treee, i.e roots,trunk and crown.
(ii) Identification and functions ofthe cross-sectional parts of atree, i.e bark, bast, cambiumlayer, annual/growth rings,medullary rays, sapwood,heartwood and pith.
(iii) Effects of the characteristics ofthe cross-sectional parts of atree on timber for woodwork.
4.1.3 Surface quality of timber Identification of timber by thefollowing characteristics:(i) grain (i.e straight, inter-lock,wavy, diagonal, etc.).
\(ii) texture
\(iii) figure
\(iv) colour
4.1.4 Mechanicproperties Definition of the following properties:hardness, strength (i.e tensile,compressive and shear), elasticity,toughness.
4.1.5. Conversion of timber Description and sketching of thefollowing methods of conversion:
(i) plain/through and through/livesawing;
(ii) tangential/back/flat/rake sawing;
(iii) quarter/radial/rift sawing;
(iv) boxed-heart sawing.
4.1.6 Marketable size Identification and sketching of thefollowing marketable sizes:Log, baulk, plank, strip, batten,square, scantling, flitch, board.
4.1.7 Seasoning Description of the following methods of seasoning:
(i) natural or open air seasoning;
(ii) artificial or kiln seasoning;
(iii) water seasoning;
(iv) chemical seasoning.
4.1.8 Determination of moisturecontent Description of the following methodsof determining moisture content:
(i) oven dry method;
(ii) moisture meter method.
4.1.9 Wood Preservation (i) Reasons for preserving timber;
(ii) Types of preservatives - tar oil,water borne, organic solvent.
(iii) Qualities of an ideal preservative.
(iv) Method of application:

(I) Pressure treatment (i.e fullcell and empty cell);
(II) Non-pressure treatment (i.espraying, impregnation,brushing, dippipng, hot andcold treatment, steeping).

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4.1.10 Defects in Timber Identification, causes and sketchingof the following types of defect in timber:
(i) natural defects, e.g. knots, burr, grains.
(ii) defects caused by organisms, e.grots, bores.
(iii) wood processing defect, e.g.diagonal grain, upset,compression shakes.
(iv) seasoning defects, e.g splits, warp,shakes, honey combing, case hardening.
4.1.11 West African Timber (i) Characteristics, similarities anddifferences, uses and workingqualities of the following WestAfrican timbers:
Iroko (Odum), Abura, Mahogany,Obeche (Wawa), Walnut, Afara,Ebony, Danta, Emery, Shedua,Mansonia, Afromosia (kokrodua),Avodire, Kusia.
(ii) Effects of depletion of timber species
4.1.12 Veneers Identification, description andsketching of the following:
(i) Methods of production, i.e rotary,slicing, sawing.
(ii)Types of veneers, i.e face, coreand back veneers.
4.1.13 Manufactured boards Identification, description, uses andsketching of: Plywood, blockboard,laminboard, chipboard, particle board,batten board, hardboard, fibre board.
4.2 Surface Decoration Identification and sketching of tools:identification and description of thefollowing methods of surfacedecoration: inlaying, veneering(hammer and caul, marquetry,laminated plastics, edging (i.e solidwood, plastics, metals, veneer),mouldings (i.e round, ovolo, reeding,carvetto/hollow, cyma recta/ogee,cyma reversa, scotia, bead, fluting),incised and relief carving.
4.3 Non-Wood Material
4.3.1 Metals
(i) Classification: ferrous and non-ferrous.
(ii) Types of ferrous metals: lowcarbon steel dead/mild steel.
(iii) Types of non-ferrous metals:Aluminium, lead, copper, tin.
(iv) Physical Properties of metals:hardness/softness.
(v) Basic chemical characteristics ofdifferent metals.
4.3.2 Nails Identification, description, uses andsketching of: French or wire nails;oval wire nails; lost-head nails; panelpin; veneer pin; cut tack; upholsterynails; roofing nails.
4.3.3 Screws Identification, description, uses andsketching of: Countersunk head;raised head; round head; Philip’shead; coach screws.
4.3.4 Plastics (i) Types - thermosetting andthermoplastics.
(ii) Differences between the typesand their common properties.
(iii) Items made from the two typesof plastics.
(iv) Uses of plastics.
4.3.5 Glass Identification and uses of: opaque,transparent and decorative glasses.
4.3.6 Leather (i) Types - Natural and artificial.
(ii) Differences between the types.
(iii) Uses of leather, e.g furniture,belts, bags.
4.3.7 Abrasives Identification, uses and descriptionof process of manufacture of glasspaper and garnet paper.
4.3.8 Fittings Identification, description, uses andsketching of: locks; hinges; bolts;catches; castors; stays.
4.3.9 Adhesives Identification, characteristics,preparation and application, uses,safety precaution during applicationof:
(i) Protein: animal, casein.
(ii) Synthetic: urea, phenol,melamine formaldehydes.
(iii) Contact: rubber based(Evostick).

5. SURFACEPREPARATION

Surface Preparation Description of process, tools andmaterials requried for varioussurface preparation: planing,scraping, sanding, filling,staining, bleaching, sprayingand polishing.

6. FINISHES

Finishes Types, characteristics, uses, methodsapplication, safety precautions in theuse of the following:-
Paints, vanishes, lacquers, polishes,laminated plastics.

7. METHODS OFSHAPING ANDBENDING WOOD

Methods of Shaping and Bending wood Types and description of methods:
(i) Obtaining sawn shapes from solidwood.
(ii) Shaping by lamination.
(iii) Shaping by curved bending.

8. WOODWORK JOINTS

Woodwork Joints Classification, uses and sketching ofthe following:-
(a) angle joints - mortice and tenon,dowel, dovetails, housing, halving,comb, plain mitre.
(b) widening joints - dowel, tongueand groove, loose tongue, rebatedbutt, slot screw, plain butt.
(c) Framing joints:- mortice andtenon, bridle, mitre, dowelled,halving.

9. UPHOLSTERY

Upholstery (a) ToolsIdentification, uses and sketching ofthe following:-
tack hammer, strainer, curved andstraight needle, tack remover,stapler, sewing machine, webbingstretcher, ripping chisel.

(b) MaterialsTypes, differences and uses of thefollowing:-
(i) Webbing - twine or cord,thread, spring, jute, hesian or baft.
(ii) Padding - foam, kapok,feathers, coconut fibres.
(iii) Covering - fabric, naturaland artificial leathers.
(iv) Tacking - stud, tack nails.

(c) (i) Upholstery parts - frame,platform, studding/padding,covering.
(ii) Types of platform (fixed andloose) and their uses.

10. DESIGN AND MAKING

Design and Making (a) Factors Affecting Design - Fitnessfor purpose, proportion, material,construction, finishing, cost.

(b) (i) Problem identification andwriting of brief.
(ii) Stating conditions andconstraints relating tosuggested solution.
(iii) Writing of specifications (i.efunction, materials, construction, cost,ergonomics, aesthetics) for possiblesolutions.

(c) Generating solutions:
(i) Sources of information togenerate ideas in solvingproblems, e.g. research, interviews, observations.
(ii) Preliminary sketches –freehand sketching of designs.

(d) Preparation of Solution:
(i) drawing in isometric view;
(ii) preparation of workingdrawing in first and thirdangle orthographic projection;
(iii) preparation of cutting list.

(e) Estimation of the cost of materials.
(f) Making of the artefact:
(i) Preparation of the materials;
(ii) Construction of the artefact:
Working drawings should berelated to the artefactconstructed;
- Tools are correctly used;
- Appropriate joints are used;
- Sequence of operation are followed;
- Safety precautions are observed;
- Appropriate finishes are applied;

(g) Evaluating the artefact: - the steps are:
(i) purpose of the artefact;
(ii) specifications of artefact;
(iii) whether the artefact serves thespecifications;
(iv) strengths and weaknesses ofartefact;
(v) areas of possible improvement;
(vi) judgment as to whether artefactis excellent, good, satisfactory, poor.

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11. MENSURATION

Measuration (a) Estimation, calculations involvinglinear, area, volume, percentage.
(b) Calculation of unit and total cost ofa job.
(c) Explanation of the variouselements involved in costing of ajob; i.e materials, labour,overhead expenses, packaging, portage,sales expenses,advertising, net profit, tax.

12. WOOD TURNING

Wood Turning (a) The lathe – identification andfunction of parts and accessories:bed, stands, headstock, tailstock,tool rest, centres,face plates.

(b) Wood turning tools: identificationuses and sketching of thefollowing:
(i) scraping tools.
(ii) cutting tools.

(c) (i) Types of turning operations:
face plate turning, betweencentres turning, boring.
(ii) Articles produced fromturning operations: flower vase, cup,egg holder, bowl, candle holder,decorative mouldings, Police baton,rolling pin, table legs.

13. MASS PRODUCTION

Mass Production Explanation of stages in massproduction:
(a) Preparation of Design and Workingdrawings.
(b) Preparation of workshop rod/ settingout.
(c) Making of prototype.
(d) Preparation of cutting list.
(e) Preparation of materials.
(f) Marking out using template.
(g) Production of parts – use of jigs;
division of labour.
(h) Trial run.
(i) Assembly line – trial assemblyand final assembly.
(j) Application of finishing.
(k) Quality control.

RECOMMENDED TOOLS, MACHINES AND MATERIALSFOR WOOD WORKSHOP

A. TOOLS

(1) Rip saw
(2) Cross-cut saw
(3) Panel saw
(4) Tenon saw
(5) Dovetail saw
(6) Coping saw
(7) Pad saw
(8) Firmer chisels, 6mm, 10mm, 12mm, 15mm, 20mm
(9) Bevelled-edge chisels 6mm, 10mm, 12mm,15mm, 20mm
(10) Mortise chisels, 6mm, 100mm, 12mm, 15mm and 20mm
(11) Gouges (Firmer and Scribing) 6mm, 12mm,15mm, 20mm
(12) Jack plane (metal)
(13) Smoothing plane (metal)
(14) Plough plane
(15) Rebate plane
(16) Shoulder plane
(17) Block plane
(18) Router plane
(19) Bullnose plane
(20) Compass plane
(21) Spokes have (Round and flat)
(22) Oil stone and slip stones
(23) Oil can
(24) Brace (Ratchet)
(25) Bits (auger, centre, forstner, gimlet, bradawl,countersink sizes 6mm, 10mm,12mm, 20mm)
(26) Hand drill
(27) Hand scraper
(28) Folding rule/Tape measure
(29) Marking gauge
(30) Cutting gauge
(31) Mortise gauge
(32) Wing compasses
(33) Marking knife
(34) Sliding bevel
(35) Mitre square
(36) Woodwork bench
(37) Woodwork bench vice
(38) Sash cramps
(39) G-cramps.
(40) Rack cramps
(41) Try square
(42) Warrington hammer
(43) Claw hammer
(44) Mallet
(45) Pincers
(46) Nail punches
(47) Crowbar
(48) Nail cutter
(49) Glass cutter
(50) Files
(51) Rasps

B. WOODWORKING MACHINES

(1) Cross-cut saw
(2) Circular saw bench
(3) Dimension saw
(4) Band saw
(26) Hand drill
(27) Hand scraper
(28) Folding rule/Tape measure
(29) Marking gauge
(30) Cutting gauge
(31) Mortise gauge
(32) Wing compasses

C. PORTABLE POWER TOOLS

(1) Plane
(2) Router
(3) Jig saw
(4) Circular saw
(5) Power drill
(6) Sanders (orbital, belt, disc)

(1) Timber
(2) Adhesive
(3) Abrasives
(4) Nails
(5) Screws
(6) Finishes and Thinners
(7) Plywood (different sizes)
(8) Permanent Markers

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ADDRESS: 1. M. Aruna Close, Ughelli, Delta State, Nigeria

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We provide educational resources/materials, curriculum guide, syllabus, scheme of work, lesson note & plan, waec, jamb, O-level & advance level GCE lessons/tutorial classes, on various topics, subjects, career, disciplines & department etc. for all the Class of Learners