The syllabus is evolved from the Senior Secondary School teaching syllabus and is intended toindicate the scope of the course for Physics examination.It is structured with the conceptual approach. The broad concepts of matter, position, motion andtime; energy; waves; fields; Atomic and Nuclear Physics, electronics are considered and eachconcept forms a part on which other sub-concepts are further based.


The aims of the syllabus are to enable candidates:
(1) acquire proper understanding of the basic principles and applications ofPhysics;
(2) develop scientific skills and attitudes as pre-requisites for further scientificactivities;
(3) recognize the usefulness, and limitations of scientific method to appreciateits applicability ion other disciplines and in every life;
(4) develop abilities, attitudes and skills that encourage efficient and safepractice;
(5) develop scientific attitudes such as accuracy, precision, objectivity, integrity,initiative and inventiveness.


The following activities appropriate to Physics will be tested:

(1) Acquisition of knowledge and understanding:

Candidates should be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of(a) Scientific phe
nomena, facts laws, definitions, concepts and theories;
(b) Scientific vocabulary, terminology and conventions (including symbols, quantitiesand units);
(c) The use of scientific apparatus, including techniques of operation and aspects ofsafety;
(d) Scientific quantities and their determinations;
(e) Scientific and technological applications with their social economic andenvironmental implications.

(2) Information Handling and Problem-solving

Candidates should be able, using visual, oral, aural and written (including symbolic,diagrammatic, graphical and numerical) information to
(a) locate select, organize and present information from a variety of sources includingeveryday experience;
(b) analyse and evaluate information and other data;
(c) use information to identify patterns, report trends and draw inferences;
(d) present reasonable explanations for natural occurrences, patterns and relationships;
(e) make predictions from data.

(3) Experimental and Problem-Solving Techniques

Candidates should be able to
(a) follow instructions;
(b) carry out experimental procedures using apparatus;
(c) make and record observations, measurements and estimates with due regard toprecision, accuracy and units;
(d) interpret, evaluate and report on observations and experimental data;
(e) identify problems, plan and carry out investigations, including the selection oftechniques, apparatus, measuring devices and materials;
(f) evaluate methods and suggest possible improvements;
(g) state and explain the necessary precautions taken in experiments to obtain accurate results.


There will be three papers, Papers 1, 2 and 3, all of which must be taken. Papers 1 and 2will be a composite paper to be taken at one sitting.


Will consist of fifty multiple choice questions lasting 1¼ hours and carrying50 marks.


Will consist of two sections, Sections A and B lasting1½ hours and carrying60 marks.

Section A -

Will comprise seven short-structured questions. Candidateswill be required to answer any five questions for a total of 15 marks.

Section B -

Will comprise five essay questions out of which candidateswill be required to answer any three for 45 marks.


Will be a practical test for school candidates or an alternative to practicalwork paper for private candidates. Each version of the paper will comprisethree questions out of which candidates will be required to answer any twoin 2¾ hours for 50 marks.


It is important that candidates are involved in practical activities in covering this syllabus.Candidates will be expected to answer questions on the topics set in the column headed ‘ TOPIC’.The ‘NOTES’ are intended to indicate the scope of the questions which will be set but they are notto be considered as an exhaustive list of limitations and illustrations.

NOTE: Questions will be set in S.I. units. However, multiples or sub-multiples of the units may beused.



1. Concepts of matter

Concepts of matter

Simple structure of matter should be discussed.Three physics states of matter, namely solid,liquid and gas should be treated. Evidence ofthe particle nature of matter e.g. Brownianmotion experiment, Kinetic theory of matter.Use of the theory to explain; states of matter(solid, liquid and gas), pressure in a gas,evaporation and boiling; cohesion, adhesion,capillarity. Crystalline and amorphoussubstances to be compared (Arrangement ofatoms in crystalline structure to be described e.g.face centred, body centred.

2. Fundamental and derived quantities andunits

(a) Fundamental quantities and units

Length, mass, time, electric current luminousintensity, thermodynamic temperature, amountof substance as examples of fundamentalquantities and m, kg, s, A, cd, K and mol as theirrespective units.

(b) Derived quantities and units

Volume, density and speed as derived quantitiesand m3, kgm-3 and ms-1 as their respective units.

3. Position, distance and displacement.

(a) Concept of position as a location ofpoint-rectangular coordinates.

Position of objects in space using the X,Y,Zaxes should be mentioned.

(b) Measurement of distance

Use of string, metre rule, vernier calipers and micrometer screw gauge. Degree of accuracyshould be noted. Metre (m) as unit of distance.

(c) Concept of direction as a way of locatinga point –bearing

Use of compass and a protractor.

(d) Distinction between distance anddisplacement.

Graphical location and directions by axes to bestressed.

4. Mass and weight

Mass and weight

Use of lever balance and chemical/beam balanceto measure mass and spring balance to measureweight. Mention should be made ofelectronic/digital balance.

Distinction between mass and weight

Kilogram (kg) as unit of mass and newton (N) asunit of weight.

5. Time

(a) Concept of time as interval betweenphysical events

The use of heart-beat, sand-clock, ticker-timer,pendulum and stopwatch/clock.

(b) Measurement of time

Second(s) as unit of time.

6. Fluid at rest

(a) Volume, density and relative density

Experimental determination for solids andliquids.

(b) Pressure in fluids

Concept and definition of pressure. Pascal’sprinciple, application of principle to hydraulicpress and car brakes. Dependence of pressureon the depth of a point below a liquid surface.Atmospheric pressure. Simple barometer,manometer, siphon, syringe and pump.Determination of the relative density of liquidswith U-tube and Hare’s apparatus.

(c) Equilibrium of bodies

Identification of the forces acting on a bodypartially or completely immersed in a fluid.

(i) Archimedes’ principle

Use of the principle to determine the relativedensities of solids and liquids.

(ii) Law of flotation

Establishing the conditions for a body to float in a fluid. Applications in hydrometer, balloons,boats, ships, submarines etc.

7. Motion

(a) Types of motion:Random, rectilinear, translational,Rotational, circular, orbital, spin,Oscillatory.

Only qualitative treatment is required.Illustration should be given for the various types ofmotion.

(b) Relative motion

Numerical problems on co-linear motion may be set.

(c) Cause of motion

Force as cause of motion.

(d) Types of force:
(i) Contact force

Push and pull

(ii) Non-contact force(field force)

These are field forces namely; electric and magneticattractions and repulsions; gravitational pull.

(e) Solid friction

Frictional force between two stationary bodies(static) and between two bodies in relative motion(dynamic). Coefficients of limiting friction and theirdeterminations. Advantages of friction e.g. inlocomotion, friction belt, grindstone. Disadvantagesof friction e.g reduction of efficiency, wear and tearof machines. Methods of reducing friction; e.g. useof ball bearings, rollers, streamlining and lubrication.

(f) Viscosity (friction in fluids)

Definition and effects. Simple explanation asextension of friction in fluids. Fluid friction and itsapplication in lubrication should be treatedqualitatively. Terminal velocity and itsdetermination.

(g) Simple ideas of circular motion

(i) demonstrate motion in aVertical/horizontal circle.
(ii) show the difference between angular speed andvelocity.
(iii) Draw a diagram to illustrate centripetal force.Banking of roads in reducing sideways frictionshould be qualitatively discussed.

8. Speed and velocity

(a) Concept of speed as change ofdistance with time

Metre per second (ms-1) as unit of speed/velocity.

(b) Concept of velocity as change of displacement with time

(c) Uniform/non-uniformspeed/velocity

Ticker-timer or similar devices should be used todetermine speed/velocity. Definition of velocity asΔs/Δt.

(d) Distance/displacement-time graph

Determination of instantaneous speed/velocity fromdistance/displacement-time graph and by calculation.

9. Rectilinear acceleration

(a) Concept ofAcceleration/deceleration asincrease/decrease in velocity withtime.

Unit of acceleration as ms-2

(b) Uniform/non-uniform acceleration

Ticker timer or similar devices should be used todetermine acceleration. Definition of acceleration as Δv/Δt

(c) Velocity-time graph

Determination of acceleration and displacementfrom velocity-time graph

(d) Equations of motion with constantacceleration;

Motion under gravity as a specialcase.

Use of equations to solve numerical problems.

10. Scalars and vectors

(a) Concept of scalars as physicalquantities with magnitude and nodirection

Mass, distance, speed and time as examples ofscalars.

(b) Concept of vectors as physicalquantities with both magnitude anddirection.

Weight, displacement, velocity and acceleration asexamples of vectors.

(c) Vector representation

(d) Addition of vectors

(e) Resolution of vectors

Obtain the resultant of two velocities analyticallyand graphically.

(f) Resultant velocity using vectorrepresentation.

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11. Equilibrium of forces

(a) Principle of moments

Torque/Moment of force. Simple treatment of acouple, e.g. turning of water tap, corkscrew andsteering wheel.)

(b) Conditions for equilibrium of rigidbodies under the action of paralleland non-parallel forces.

Use of force board to determine resultant andequilibrant forces. Treatment should includeresolution of forces into two perpendicular directionsand composition of forcesParallelogram of forces. Triangle of forces.

Should ne treated experimentally. Treatment shouldinclude stable, unstable and neutral equilibra.

(c) Centre of gravity and stability

Use of a loaded test-tube oscillating vertically in a liquid, simple pendulum, spiral spring and bifilarsuspension to demonstrate simple harmonic motion.

12. Simple harmonic motion

(a) Illustration, explanation anddefinition of simple harmonicmotion (S.H.M)

(b) Speed and acceleration of S.H.M.

Relate linear and angular speeds, linear and angularaccelerations.

(c) Period, frequency and amplitudeof a body executing S.H.M.

Experimental determination of ‘g’ with the simplependulum and helical spring. The theory of theprinciples should be treated but derivation of theformula for ‘g’ is not required

(d) Energy of S.H.M

Simple problems may be set on simple harmonicmotion. Mathematical proof of simple harmonicmotion in respect of spiral spring, bifilar suspensionand loaded test-tube is not required.

(e) Forced vibration and resonance

Distinction between inertia mass and weight

13. Newton’s laws of motion:

(a) First Law:Inertia of rest and inertia ofmotion

Use of timing devices e.g. ticker-timer to determinethe acceleration of a falling body and therelationship when the accelerating force is constant.

(b) Second Law:Force, acceleration, momentumand impulse

Linear momentum and its conservation.Collision of elastic bodies in a straight line.

(c) Third Law:Action and reaction

Applications: recoil of a gun, jet and rocketpropulsions.

ENERGY: Mechanical and Heat


14. Energy:

(a) Forms of energy

Examples of various forms of energy should bementioned e.g. mechanical (potential and kinetic),heat chemical, electrical, light, sound, nuclear.

(b) World energy resources

Renewable (e.g. solar, wind, tides, hydro, oceanwaves) and non-renewable (e.g. petroleum, coal,nuclear, biomass) sources of energy should bediscussed briefly.

(c) Conservation of energy.

Statement of the principle of conservation of energy and its use in explaining energy transformations.

15. Work, Energy and Power

(a) Concept of work as a measure ofenergy transfer

Unit of energy as the joule (J)

(b) Concept of energy as capability todo work

Unit of energy as the joule (J) while unit of electricalconsumption is KWh.

(c) Work done in a gravitational field.

Work done in lifting a body and by falling bodies

(d) Types of mechanical energy
(i) Potential energy (P.E.)
(ii) Kinetic energy (K.E)

Derivation of P.E and K.E are expected to be known.Identification of types of energy possessed by a bodyunder given conditions.

(e) Conservation of mechanicalenergy.

Verification of the principle.

(f) Concept of power as time rate ofdoing work.

Unit of power as the watt (W)

(g) Application of mechanical energymachines.Levers, pulleys, inclined plane,wedge, screw, wheel and axle,gears.

The force ratio (F.R), mechanical advantage (M.A),velocity ratio (V.R) and efficiency of each machineshould be treated.Identification of simple machines that make up agiven complicated machine e.g. bicycle.Effects of friction on Machines. Reduction offriction in machines.

16. Heat Energy

(a) Temperature and its measurement

Concept of temperature as degree of hotness orcoldness of a body. Construction and graduation ofa simple thermometer.

Properties of thermometric liquids. The followingthermometer, should be treated:

Constant – volume gas thermometer, resistancethermometer, thermocouple, liquid-in-glassthermometer including maximum and minimumthermometer and clinical thermometer, pyrometershould be mentioned.
Celsius and Absolute scalesof temperature.
Kelvin and degree Celsius as units oftemperature.

(b) Effects of heat on matter e.g

Use of the Kinetic theory to explain effects of heat.

(i) Rise in temperature

Mention should be made of the following effects:

(ii) Change of phase state

Change of colour

(iii) Expansion

Thermionic emission

(iv) Change of resistance

Change in chemical properties

(c) Thermal expansion – Linear, areaand volume expansivities

Qualitative and quantitative treatment
Consequences and application of expansions.Expansion in buildings and bridges, bimetallic strips,thermostat, over-head cables causing sagging nd inrailway lines causing buckling. Real and apparentexpansion of liquids. Anomalous expansion ofwater.

(d) Heat transfer –Condition, convention andradiation.

Per Kelvin (K-1) as the unit of expansivity.

Use of the kinetic theory to explain the modes ofheat transfer. Simple experimental illustrations.Treatment should include the explanation of landand sea breezes, ventilation and application s incooling devices. The vacuum flask.

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(e) The gas laws-Boyle’s lawCharles’ law, pressure law andgeneral gas law

The laws should be verified using simple apparatus.Use of the kinetic theory to explain the laws. Simpleproblems may be set. Mention should be made ofthe operation of safety air bags in vehicles.

(f) Measurement of heat energy:
(i) Concept of heat capacity
(ii) Specific heat capacity.

Use of the method of mixtures and the electricalmethod to determine the specific heat capacities ofsolids and liquids. Land and sea breezes related tothe specific heat capacity of water and land, Jkg-1K-1 as unit of specific heat capacity.

(g) Latent heat
(i) Concept of latent heat

Explanation and types of latent heat.

(ii) Melting point and boilingPoint

Determination of the melting point of solid and theboiling point of a liquid. Effects of impurities andpressure on melting and boiling points. Applicationin pressure cooker.

(iii) Specific latent heat of fusionand of vaporization

Use of the method of mixtures and the electricalmethod to determine the specific latent heats offusion of ice and of vaporization of steam.
Applications in refrigerators and air conditioners.

Jkg-1 as unit of specific latent heat

(h) Evaporation and boiling

Effect of temperature, humidity, surface area anddraught on evaporation to be discussed.

(i) Vapour and vapour pressure

Explanation of vapour and vapour pressure.Demonstration of vapour pressure using simpleexperiments. Saturated vapour pressure and itsrelation to boiling.

(j) Humidity, relative humidity anddew point

Measurement of dew point and relative humidity.Estimation of humidity of the atmosphere using wetand dry-bulb hygrometer.

(k) Humidity and the weather

Formation of dew, fog and rain.



17. Production and propagation of waves

(a) Production and propagation ofmechanical waves

Use of ropes and springs (slinky) to generatemechanical waves

(b) Pulsating system:Energy transmitted with definitespeed, frequency and wavelength.

Use of ripple tank to show water waves and todemonstrate energy propagation by waves.Hertz(Hz) as unit of frequency.

(c) Waveform

Description and graphical representation.Amplitude, wave length, frequency and period.Sound and light as wave phenomena.

(d) Mathematical relationshipconnecting frequency (f),wavelength(𝛌), period (T) andvelocity (v)

V= f𝛌 and T = 1/f
simple problems may be set.

18. Types of waves

(a) Transverse and longitudinal

Examples to be given

(b) Mathematical representation of wave motion.

Equation y = A sin (wt ± 2πx/λ) to be explainedQuestions on phase difference will not be set.

19. Properties of waves:

Reflection, refraction, diffraction,Interference, superposition ofprogressive waves producing standingstationary waves

Ripple tank should be extensively used todemonstrate these properties with plane and circularwaves. Explanation of the properties.

20. Light waves

(a) Sources of light

Natural and artificial. Luminous and non-luminousbodies.

(b) Rectilinear propagation of light

Formation of shadows and eclipse. Pinhole camera.Simple numerical problems may be set.

(c) Reflection of light at plane surface:plane mirror

Regular and irregular reflections. Verification oflaws of reflection. Formation of images.Inclined plane mirrors. Rotation of mirrors.Applications in periscope, sextant and kaleidoscope.

(d) Reflection of light at curvedsurfaces: concave and convexmirrors

Laws of reflection. Formation of images.Characteristics of images. Use of mirror formulae:1/u + 1/v = 1/fand magnification m = v/uto solvenumerical problems.
(Derivation of formulae is not required)

Experimental determination of the focal length ofconcave mirror.Applications in searchlight, parabolic and drivingmirrors, car headlamps etc.

(e) Refraction of light at plane surfaces:rectangular glass prism (block) andtriangular prism.

Laws of refraction. Formation of images, real andApparent depths. Critical angle and total internalreflection. Lateral displacement and angle ofdeviation. Use of minimum deviation equation:

μ = Sin (A + Dm)/2/ Sin A/2

(f) Refraction of light at curved surfaces:Converging and diverging lenses

(Derivation of the formula is not required)Applications: periscope, prism binoculars, opticalfibres. The mirage.

Formation of images. Use of lens formulae
1/u + 1/v = 1/fand magnification v/uto solve numericalproblems.

(derivation of the formulae not required).Experimental determination of the focal length ofconverging lens. Power of lens in dioptres (D)

(g) Application of lenses in opticalinstruments.

Simple camera, the human eye, film projector,simple and compound microscopes, terrestrial andastronomical telescopes. Angular magnification.Prism binoculars. The structure and function of thecamera and the human eye should be compared.Defects of the human eye and their corrections.

(h) Dispersion of white light by atriangular glass prism.

Production of pure spectrum of a white light.Recombination of the components of the spectrum.Colours of objects. Mixing coloured lights.

21. Electromagnetic waves:

Types of radiation in electromagneticSpectrum

Elementary description and uses of various types ofradiation: Radio, infrared, visible light, ultra-violet,X-rays, gamma rays.

22. Sound Waves

(a) Sources of sound

(b) Transmission of sound waves

Experiment to show that a material medium isrequired.

(c) Speed of sound in solid, liquid and air

To be compared. Dependence of velocity of sound on temperature and pressure to be considered.

(d) Echoes and reverberation

Use of echoes in mineral exploration, anddetermination of ocean depth. Thunder and multiplereflections in a large room as examples ofreverberation.

(e) Noise and music

(f) Characteristics of sound

Pitch, loudness and quality.

(g) Vibration in strings

The use of sonometer to demonstrate the dependenceof frequency (f) on length (1), tension (T) and massper unit length (liner density) (m) of string should betreated. Use of the formula:
fo = 1/2l√(T/m)
In solving simple numerical problems.Applications in stringed instruments: e.g. guitar,piano, harp and violin.

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(h) Forced vibration

Use of resonance boxes and sonometer to illustrateforced vibration.

(i) Resonance

(ii) Harmonies and overtones

Use of overtones to explain the quality of a musicalnote. Applications in percussion instruments: e.gdrum, bell, cymbals, xylophone.

(i) Vibration of air in pipe – openand closed pipes

Measurement of velocity of sound in air orfrequency of tuning fork using the resonance tube.
Use of the relationship v = 𝑓𝛌 in solving numericalproblems. End correction is expected to bementioned. Applications in wind instruments e.g.organ, flute, trumpet, horn, clarinet and saxophone.



23. Description property of fields.

(a) Concept of fields:Gravitational, electric andMagnetic

(b) Properties of a force field

Use of compass needle and iron filings to showmagnetic field lines.

24. Gravitational field

(a) Acceleration due to gravity, (g)

G as gravitational field intensity should bementioned, g = F/m.

(b) Gravitational force between twomasses:

Masses include protons, electrons and planets

Newton’s law of gravitation

Universal gravitational constant (G)Relationship between ‘G’ and ‘g’

(c) Gravitational potential and escapevelocity.

Calculation of the escape velocity of a rocket fromthe earth’s gravitational field.

25. Electric Field

(1) Electrostatics

(a) Production of electric charges

Production by friction, induction and contact.

(b) Types of distribution ofcharges

A simple electroscope should be used to detect andcompare charges on differently-shaped bodies.

(c) Storage of charges

Application in light conductors.

(d) Electric lines of force

Determination, properties and field patterns ofcharges.

(e) Electric force between pointcharges: Coulomb’s law

Permittivity of a medium.

(f) Concepts of electric field,electric field intensity (potentialgradient) and electric potential.

Calculation of electric field intensity and electricpotential of simple systems.

(g) Capacitance-Definition, arrangement andapplication

Factors affecting the capacitance of a parallel-platecapacitor. The farad (F) as unit of capacitance.Capacitors in series and in parallel.Energy stored in a charged capacitor. Uses ofcapacitors: e.g. in radio and Television.(Derivation of formulae for capacitance is notrequired)

(2) Current electricity

(a) Production of electric currentfrom primary and secondarycells

Simple cell and its defects. Daniel cell, Lechanchécell (wet and dry).Lead-acid accumulator. Alkalne-cadium cell.E.m.f. of a cell, the volt (V) as unit of e.m.f.

(b) Potential difference and electriccurrent

Ohm’s law and resistance. Verification of Ohm’slaw. The volt (V), ampere (A) and ohm (Ω) as unitsof p.d., current and reisistance respectively.

(c) Electric circuit

Series and parallel arrangement of cells andresistors. Lost volt and internal resistance ofbatteries.

(d) Electric conduction throughmaterials

Ohmic and non ohmic conductors. Examples ofohmic conductors are metals, non-ohmic conductorsare semiconductors.

(e) Electric energy and power

Quantitative definition of electrical energy andpower. Heating effect of an electric current and itsapplication. Conversion of electrical energy tomechanical energy e.g. electric motors.Conversion of solar energy to electrical and heatenergies: e.g. solar cells, solar heaters.

(f) Shunt and multiplier

Use in conversion of a galvanometer into anammeter and a voltmeter.

(g) Resistivity and Conductivity

Factors affecting the electrical resistance of amaterial should be treated. Simple problems may beset.

(h) Measurement of electriccurrent, potential difference,resistance, e.m.f. and internalresistance of a cell.

Principle of operation and use of ammeter,voltmeter, potentiometer. The wheatstone bridgeand metre bridge.

26. Magnetic field

(a) Properties of magnets andmagnetic materials.

Practical examples such as soft iron, steel and alloys.

(b) Magnetization anddemagnetization.

Temporary and permanent magnets. Comparison ofiron and steel as magnetic materials.

(c) Concept of magnetic field

Magnetic flux and magnetic flux density.Magnetic field around a permanent magnet, acurrent-carrying conductor and a solenoid.Plotting of line of force to locate neutral pointsUnits of magnetic flux and magnetic flux density asweber (Wb) and tesla (T) respectively.

(d) Magnetic force on:
(i) a current-carrying conductorplaced in a magnetic field;
(ii) between two parallelcurrent-carrying conductors

Qualitative treatment only. Applications: electricmotor and moving-coil galvanometer.

(e) Use of electromagnets

Examples in electric bell, telephone earpiece etc.

(f) The earth’s magnetic field

Mariner’s compass. Angles of dip and declination.

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(g) Magnetic force on a movingcharged particle

Solving simple problems involving the motion of acharged particle in a magnetic field, usingF=qvB sin 𝜃

27. Electromagnetic field

(a) Concept of electromagnetic field

Identifying the directions of current, magnetic fieldand force in an electromagnetic field (Fleming’s lefthandrule).

(b) Electromagnetic induction

Faraday’s law ,Lenz’s law andmotor-generator effect

Applications: Generator (d.c.and a.c.) induction coiland transformer. The principles underlying theproduction of direct and alternating currents shouldbe treated. Equation E = Eo Sinwt should beexplained.

(c) Inductance

Qualitative explanation of self and mutualinductance. The unit of inductance is henry (H).

(E = ½LI2)

Application in radio,T.V., transformer.(Derivation of formula is not required).

(d) Eddy currents

A method of reducing eddy current losses should betreated. Applications in induction furnace,speedometer, etc.

(e) Power transmission anddistribution

Reduction of power losses in high-tensiontransmission lines. Household wiring system shouldbe discussed.

(f) Shunt and multiplier

Use in conversion of a galvanometer into anammeter and a voltmeter.

(g) Resistivity and Conductivity

Factors affecting the electrical resistance of amaterial should be treated. Simple problems may beset.

(h) Measurement of electriccurrent, potential difference,resistance, e.m.f. and internalresistance of a cell.

Principle of operation and use of ammeter,voltmeter, potentiometer. The wheatstone bridgeand metre bridge.

28. Simple a.c. circuits

(a) Graphical representation of e.m.fand current in an a.c. circult.

Graphs of equation I – Io sin wt and\E = Eo sinwtshould be treated.

(b) Peak and r..m.s. values

Phase relationship between voltage and current inthe circuit elements; resistor, inductor and capacitor.

(c) Series circuit containingresistor, inductor and capacitor

Simple calculations involving a.c. circuit.(Derivation of formulae is not required.)

(d) Reactance and impedance

XL and Xc should be treated. Simple numericalproblems may be set.

(e) Vector diagrams

(f) Resonance in an a.c, circuit

Applications in tuning of radio and T.V. should bediscussed.

(g) Power in an a.c. circuit.



29. Structure of the atom

(a) Models of the atom

Thomson, Rutherford, Bohr and electroncloud(wave-mechanical) models should bediscussed qualitatively. Limitations of eachmodel. Quantization of angular momentum(Bohr)

(b) Energy quantization

Energy levels in the atom. Colour and lightfrequency. Treatment should include thefollowing: Frank-Hertz experiment, Linespectra from hot bodies, absorption spectraand spectra of discharge lamps.

(c) Photoelectric effect

Explanation of photoelectric effect. Dualnature of light. Work function and thresholdfrequency. Einstein’s photoelectric equationand its explanation. Application in T.V.,camera, etc.Simple problems may be set.

(d) Thermionic emission

Explanation and applications.

(e) X-rays

Production of X-rays and structure of X-raytube.

Types, characteristics, properties, uses andhazards of X-rays. Safety precautions

30. Structure of the nucleus

(a) Composition of the nucleus

Protons and neutrons. Nucleon number (A),proton number (Z), neutron number (N) andthe equation: A-Z + N to be treated.Nuclides and their notation. Isotopes.

(b) Radioactivity –
Natural and artificial

Radioactive elements, radioactive emissions(𝛼, β, 𝛾) and their properties and uses.Detection of radiations by G – M counter,photographic plates, etc. should bementioned. Radioactive decay, half-life anddecay constant.Transformation of elements. Applications ofradioactivity in agriculture, medicine,industry, archaeology, etc.

(b) Nuclear reactions
Fusion and Fission

Distinction between fusion and fission.Binding energy, mass defect and energyequation:

E= Δ mc2

Nuclear reactors. Atomic bomb. Radiationhazards and safety precautions. Peacefuluses of nuclear reactions.

31. Wave-particle paradox

(a) Electron diffraction
(b) Duality of matter

Simple illustration of the dual nature oflight.



1. Derived quantities and dimensionalAnalysis

Fundamental quantities and units e.g. Length, mass,time, electric current, luminous intensity e.t.c., m,kg,s, A, cd, e.t.c. as their respective unitsDerived quantities and units. e.g. volume, density,speed e.t.c. m3, kgm-3, ms-1 e.t.c. as their respectiveunit

Explanation of dimensions in terms of fundamentaland derived quantities. Uses of dimensions

- to verity dimensional correctness of a givenequation

- to derive the relationship between quantities

- to obtain derived units.

2. Projectile motion concept ofprojectiles as an object thrown/releaseinto space

Applications of projectiles in warfare, sports etc.Simple problems involving range, maximum heightand time of flight may be set.

3. Satellites and rockets

Meaning of a satellite comparison of natural andartificial satellites parking orbits, Geostationarysatellites and period of revolution and speed of asatellite.
Uses of satellites and rockets

4. Elastic Properties of solid:
Hooke’s law, Young’s modules andwork done in springs and string

Behaviour of elastic materials under stress – featuresof load – extension graphSimple calculations on Hook’s law and Young’smodulus.

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Thermal conductivity:Solar energy collector and Black bodyRadiation.

Solar energy; solar panel for heat energy supply.Explanation of a blackbody. Variation of intensityof black body radiation with wavelength at differenttemperatures.

5. Fibre Optics

Explanation of concept of fibre optics.
Principle of transmission of light through an opticalfibre
Applications of fibre optics e.g. local area Networks(LAN) medicine, rensing devices, carrying laserbeams e.t.c.

6. Introduction to LASER

Meaning of LASER
Types of LASERS
(Solid state, gas, liquid and semi-conductorLASERS
Application of LASERS
(in Scientific research, communication, medicinemilitary technology, Holograms e.t.c.
Dangers involved in using LASERS.

7. Magnetic materials

Uses of magnets and ferromagnetic materials.

8. Electrical Conduction throughmaterials [Electronic]

Distinction between conductors, semiconductors andinsulators in term of band theory.

Semi conductor materials (silicon and germanium)Meaning of intrinsic semiconductors. (Example ofmaterials silicon and germanium). Charge carriersDoping production of p-type and n-type extrinsicsemi conductors.

Junction diode – forward and reverse biasing,voltage characteristics. Uses of diodes Half and fullwave rectification.

9. Structure of matter

Use of kinetic theory to explain diffusion.

10. Wave – particle paradox

Electron diffraction
Duality of matter
Simple illustrations of dual nature of light.

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Facts about Teachers

● ● ● Teachers Are Great No Controversy.

● ● ● Teachers are like candles, they burn themselves to light others.

● ● ● Teachers don't teach for the money.

● ● ● Every great mind was once taught by some brilliant teachers.

● ● ● Teachers are the second parents we have.

● ● ● If you can write your name, thank your teacher.

Teaching slogans

● ● ● Until the learner learns the teacher has not taught.

● ● ● I hear and forget, I see and remember, I do and know.

● ● ● The good teacher explains. The superior teacher demonstrates. The great teacher inspires.

We provide educational resources/materials, curriculum guide, syllabus, scheme of work, lesson note & plan, waec, jamb, O-level & advance level GCE lessons/tutorial classes, on various topics, subjects, career, disciplines & department etc. for all the Class of Learners