PHYSICAL EDUCATION

WAEC SYLLABUS ON PHYSICAL EDUCATION

PREAMBLE:

The UNESCO charter on physical education and sports recognizes the inalienable right ofevery child to participate in physical activity irrespective of race, gender, religion andphysical state. Physical education provides opportunities for the acquisition ofcomprehensive knowledge, attitude and skills which stimulate individual and groupconsciousness. Therefore, the content of this syllabus is designed as a functionalprogramme for the promotion of the educational, physical and psychological health of theindividual, to equip him with the appropriate skills, abilities as well as physical andmental competencies to live in and contribute meaningfully to the development of thesociety.The syllabus will not only provide pupils with worthwhile skills needed for participationin physical activity, sports and recreational activities but also potential carry-over valueof healthful living.This syllabus, an examination syllabus should be used in connection with the teachingsyllabus because the examples mentioned herein should not be considered exhaustiverather should be drawn from the pupils environment.

AIM AND OBJECTIVES

The examination syllabus is designed to assess whether the candidates have acquired thefollowing:
(i) the understanding of movement activities and the relationships betweenmovement and concepts from biological, physical and social sciences;
(ii) skills needed in basic motor activities, fitness, maintenance and self awareness;
(iii) an appreciation of the role of movement and physical activity in humandevelopment;
(iv) the understanding of physical activity and exercise as tools for health andwellness promotion.

SCHEME OF EXAMINATION

There will be three papers, Papers 1, 2 and 3 all of which must be taken. Papers 1 and 2shall be combined in a composite paper and will be taken at one sitting.

PAPER 1:

This will consist of fifty multiple-choice questions lasting 50 minutes andcarrying 50 marks.

PAPER 2:

This will consist of four sections – Sections A, B, C and D which will coverquestions on the following aspects of the syllabus:
Section A: Athletics, balls and racket games
Section B: Foundation of physical education
Section C: Basic human anatomy and physiology in physical education
Section D: Sports administration and competitions

Section A will comprise three short essay questions out of which candidateswill be required to answer two for 20 marks. Sections B, C and D will consistof two short essay questions each. Candidates will be required to answer onequestion carrying 10 marks from each of those sections. The paper willlast1hour 20 minutes and carry a total of 50 marks.

PAPER 3:

This will also consist of four sections: Sections, A, B, C and D, covering thefollowing events:
Section A: Athletics (Track and Field events)
Section B: Ball games
Section C: Racket games
Section D: Gymnastics

There will be three questions in Section A out of which candidates will berequired to answer two. Each question in the section shall carry 25 marks. Ineach of Sections B, C and D, there will be two questions out of whichcandidates will answer one (from each section). Each question in Sections Band C will carry 20 marks while those in Section D will carry 10 marks each.

A maximum of 120 seconds (2 minutes) will be allowed for a candidate torespond to a call for performance during practical examination.


DETAILED SYLLABUS

TOPICSCONTENTSNOTES

A. PRINCIPLES AND PHYLOSOPHYOF PHYSICAL EDUCATION

1. Philosophy of Physical Education
(a) Principles and philosophies offounding fathers
(b) changes in concept of physicalEducation
(c) education of the physical andeducation through the physical

Emphases should be on Hetherington, DudleySergent, Thomas Wood and John Dewey

2. Physical education ideologies
(a) nationalism and patriotism inphysical education and sport.
(b) national ideologies

Students should be taught on how physicaleducation and sports will enhanceachievement of nationalism, patriotism andnational ideologies.

3. Recreation
(a) Definition and importance
(b) Types of recreational activities
(i) indoor
(ii) outdoor

Differences between work, rest, recreation,leisure and sports should be emphasized

(c) Recreational activities:
Walking, jogging, swimming, cycling,playing musical instruments, tabletennis, camping etc.

Candidates should be able to differentiatebetween indoor and outdoor recreation.

(d) Differences between recreationalactivities and lifetime sports.

The role of recreational activities in the life ofan individual and the society should beemphasized.Safety in recreational activities should bementioned.

4. Intramural and Extramural activitiesAnd tournament
(a) Definitions of
(i) intramural activities
(ii) extramural activities
(b) Benefit of intramural and
extramural activities

Differences between intramural andextramural activities, minor and major gamesand sports should be emphasized.

(c) (i) Definition of tournament
(ii) Types of tournament

The role of lead up games and games of loworganization should be mentioned.Advantages and disadvantages of each type oftournament.

5. Traditional sports in West Africa
(a) Origin of traditional sports in WestAfrica countires
(b) types of traditional sports inrespective different West AfricanCountries
(c) values of traditional sports

6. Greek Festivals and The OlympicGames
(a) Greek Festivals:
(i) Usthman, Pythian, Nemean andOlympian
(ii) Ancient Olympic Games

Reference should be made to the origin andsignificance of these festivals.
The origin and importance of the Olympic Gamesto the social and political life of the ancient Greekshould be discussed.
Emphasis to be placed on Sparta and Athens.

(b) The modern Olympic Games

The origin and importance of the modern OlympicGames should be discussed.

B. NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONALSPORTS COMPETITIONS

1. Sports Championship at national level
(a) organization and administration

2. Types of championship
(a) national championship organized bydifferent sportsassociations/federations
(b) national championship organized bycorporate organizations
(c) the national sports festival

3. Institutional sports
(a) the universities games
(b) the polytechnic games
(c) colleges of education games
(d) national school sports federation

4. The All African Games
(a) history of All Africa Games
(b) reasons for disparity in the timing ofthe games
(c) history and activities of supremeCouncil of sports in African (SCSA)

5. International Competitions
(a) The F.I.F.A World Cup
(b) The Olympic/Paraolympic Games
(c) Commonwealth Games
(d) All Africa Games
(e) world Athletics Championship
(f) World Swimming Championship

Emphasis should be on history, organization andthe governing body of each of the competition.It should be noted that all sports federation havetheir own international competition and should bestated

C. BASIC HUMAN ANATOMY ANDPHYSIOLOGY IN RELATION TOPHYSICAL ACTIVITIES

1. Skeletal System
(a) main parts and functions of thehuman skeleton

Candidates should be able to name the main partsof the human skeleton

(b) bones and joints involved inmovement.

Candidates should be able to list the main bonesinvolved in movement of all the joints. Joints thatpermit different kinds of movement should bediscussed.

2. Nervous System(a) the brain
(b) the spinal cord
(c) the nerves

The parts and functions of each organ listed should be discussed. The simple reflex actionshould be discussed.

3. Circulatory System
(a) the hearts muscle
(b) effects of exercise on the heart
(c) the blood circulation
(d) function of blood
(e) types of blood circulation

Internal and external respiration should beemphasized

4. Respiratory System
(a) the trachea, lungs and nose
(b) the functions
(c) types of respiration
(d) aerobic and anaerobic sports

Aerobic and anaerobic activities in relation torespiration should be discussed.

5. Skeletal muscles
(a) major muscles of the body
(b) types of muscle contraction
(c) muscle cramp, cause, prevention andfirst aid.

Name and locations of major muscles should beemphasized

Isotonic and isometric contraction should beemphasized.

6. Somatotype
(a) description of the various body type
(b) relationship between body type andphysical activities and sports

7. Posture
(a) correct posture
(b) postural defects

The characteristics of correct posture should bediscussed. Candidates should be able to state thecauses of the following postural defects: kyphosis,scoliosis, lordiosis and flat foot.Corrective measures should be discussed

D. PRACTICE OF ATHLETICS, GAMESAND DANCE

1. Athletics (Track and Field Events)A. Track Events
(a) Short distance races (sprints) 50m,100m, 200m, 400, hurdles and relayraces.
(b)Sprint start: bullet/bunch. medium andelongated
(c) relay races
(d)hurdle events (high and low)
(i) middle race (800m,1,500m,
(ii) 3000 steeple chance cross country
(iii) long distance races (3,00m,5,000, 10,000m) and marathon
(iv) phases of running
(v) rules and regulations
(vi) officiating

The start, race and finish should be discussed anddemonstrated.

Visual and non-visual types of baton take-overand take-over zone should be explained.Demonstrated and practisedThe flight over hurdles should be demonstatedand practiced. Different distances involved inhurdling should be explained

The start, stride and finishing should be explained.

1. Field Events
(i) throwing events:
discus, javelin and shot put
(ii) jumps: high jump, long jump,triple jump and pole vault
(a) equipment and specification
(b) techniques
(c) rules and regulations
(d) officiating

The candidate should be able to explain rules andregulations of short, middle and long distanceracesDuties of officials should be discussed.Candidates should be able to explain thetechniques and rules involved in each event andidentify the various equipment and specificationsused for each event.Safety precautions involved in each event shouldbe discussed.Techniques/skills involved in jumping eventsshould be explained demonstrated and practised.Different styles of high jump (flop, straddle,western roll, scissors and differenttechniques/skills involved in long jump (sail/hangand hitch kick should be discussed, demonstratedand practised.

2. Games
A. Ball games
(i) (a) football
(b) basketball
(c) volleyball
(d) hockey
(e) handball
(ii) rules and regulations of eachgame
(iii) Officiating.

Skills in each game should demonstrate andpractised

Safety precaution involved in each game shouldbe discussed.

3. Racket games
(1) (a) tennis
(b) table tennis
(c) badminton
(i) Specification of court/table of all games;
(ii) types of equipment used;
(iii) skills involved in each game;
(iv) rules and regulations
(v) officiating

Candidates should be able to draw and labelstandard courts/playing areas and equipment.terminologies in each game should be explained.

Duties of officials in each game should bediscussed.The application of the rules and regulationsshould be discussedSkills in each game should demonstrate andpractised

Safety precautions in each game should bediscussed.

Candidates should be able to draw and labelstandard court and playing areas and demonstratedthe skills involved in each game.

4. Traditional dances
(a) dances from the regions of each country
(b) costumes for various dances
(c) types of traditional dance and dance step

We provide educational resources/materials, curriculum guide, syllabus, scheme of work, lesson note & plan, waec, jamb, O-level & advance level GCE lessons/tutorial classes, on various topics, subjects, career, disciplines & department etc. for all the Class of Learners

E. PHYSICAL FITNESS ANDCONDITIONING

1. Physical fitness
(a) Definition of physical fitness
(b) Components of physical fitness
(c) Examples of health related andperformance/skill related components ofphysical fitness
(d) Benefits of physical activity, exerciseand physical fitness

The application of the rules and regulationsshould be discussed. Teachers should demonstratecoaching points emphasized. Pupils shouldpractice. Game situation should be encouraged.

2. Health and Personal hygiene
(a) importance of health in physicaleducation
(b) care of the body
(c) sportswear

Qualities of good health should be mentioned.

The importance of keeping the body clean before,during and after exercise should be emphasized.

The importance of selecting appropriatesportswear for difference sports and games shouldbe emphasized.

Reference should be made to the effect of goodand bad sportswear on the body.

F. NUTRITION, DRUG AND SPORTS

1. Nutrition
(a) classes of food nutrients
(b) balanced diet
(c) dietary consideration in sports

Emphasis should be on pre-game nutrition role ofcarbohydrate in sports performance.

2. Drug in sports
(a) meaning of drug
(b) types of drug
(c) drug use and misuse
(d) the effect of drug on sportsperformance

Emphasis should be placed on:
Stimulants, narcotics, hallucinogen, sedatives andergogenic aids.

3. Sports injuries
(a) Common sports injuries
(i) dislocation
(ii) sprain
(iii) strain
(iv) fracture
(v) bruise
(vi) cramp

Candidates should be able to identify kinds ofsports injuries and explain the causes, symptoms,management and prevention of each injury.

(b) First aid and first aid box(i) Special conditions and solutionsthat require first aid(ii)Sportswear

Candidates should be able to define and apply firstaid to sports injury. They should also be able tolist the contents of a first aid box.

Students should be made aware of the use, care andmaintenance of sportswear. The role of sportswearin regulating body temperature before, during andafter exercise should be discussed.

4. Corrective and adapted physicaleducation programme
(a) Definitions
(b) Categories of people with specialneeds
(c) Corrective exercise
(d) Activities for the special needs
(e) Social and emotional problems of thespecial needs:
Heat stroke, heat exhaustion,drowning shock, fainting, musclefatigue

The management for each of these should bediscussed.

The different types and application of artificialrespiration should be discussed.

The need for safety precautions in physicaleducation should be discussed.

G. SPORTS ADMINISTRATION

1. Administrative structure/functions ofsports at national, regional/state and localgovernment level.

Administrative chart and organogram at differentlevels should be emphasized.

2. Administrative structure/function of sportsat institution level

Administrative chart and organogram at differentinstitutional levels should be emphasized.

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