METALWORK

WAEC SYLLABUS ON METALWORK

PREAMBLE:

The examination is designed to test candidate’s skill in basic design, practical work andentrepreneurship. It will also assess their knowledge of tools, equipment and materials andunderstanding of those areas of creative thinking which can be expressed and developed throughplanning and working primarily on metals as part of general education. The test will also assesscandidate’s competency in the fundamentals of manufacturing to pursue higher education inscience and technology.

AIM:

The aim of the syllabus is to test candidate’s acquisition of the requisite knowledge andskillsneeded to pursue further education and self development in science and technology.

OBJECTIVES OF THE SYLLABUS

Candidates will be expected to:
(1) observe safe working practices in the workshop;
(2) demonstrate knowledge and understanding of tools, material and equipment;
(3) apply basic processes for the care and maintenance of hand and machine tools;
(4) have ability in identifying, analysing and evaluating a problem;
(5) apply their knowledge of processes and materials to the solution of problems;
(6) demonstrate basic skills of good craftsmanship;
(7) apply knowledge of career opportunities in metalwork;
(8) have ability to translate an idea into a project design.

SCHEME OF EXAMINATION

The examination shall consist of three papers, Papers 1, 2 and 3, all of which must be taken.Papers 1 and 2 will be a composite paper to be taken at one sitting.

PAPER 1:

Will consist of forty compulsory multiple choice objective questions. Candidates willbe allowed 1 hour to answer the questions. The paper will carry 40 marks.

PAPER 2:

Will consist of five questions out of which candidates will be expected to answer fourin 1½ hours. The paper will carry 60 marks. All questions will carry equal marks.

PAPER 3:

Will be a practical test of 3 hours. 10 minutes shall be given prior to thecommencement of the examination for the study of the drawings. The paper will consistof two questions out of which candidates will be expected to answer one. They will berequired to make a test piece for which the appropriate drawings will be supplied. The paper will carry 100 marks. Schools will be required to supply materials that will beneeded for the practical test.


DETAILED SYLLABUS

TOPICSTHEORYPRACTICALS

1. General safetyin theworkshop.

1.1 Potential sources of accidents.Measures to avoid accidents.
1.2 Personal safety. Safetyclothings: goggles apron,gloves, bootswith hard toecaps, helmet.
1.3 Safety rules and precautions ina metal workshop.

2. Metals.

2.1 Description of metals: physicaland mechanical properties.

2.2 Types of Metals:-Ferrous metals: pig iron,wrought iron, cast iron andsteels.
- Non Ferrous Metals:aluminium, zinc, copper,tin and lead.
- Non-ferrous alloys: brass,bronze, soldersand duralumin.
- Constituents and properties.

2.3 Uses of Metals: Constructionof autobodies, frames,structuralmembers of building andbridges.
- Selection of suitable metalsfor specific jobs.

2.4 Production of Metals
- Types of metals and theirores: copper-pyrite,
aluminium –bauxite,
iron – hematite,
zinc – calamine,
lead – gelina,
tin – tin ore(cassiterite) .
- Methods of extraction:open pit and underground.
- Processes of smelting andrefining: Blast furnace,
Bessemer converter,
openhearth,
crucible,
cupola electricarc and high frequencyinduction furnace andreverberating furnace.
- Forms of metal supply:billets, blooms and slabs.

2.1.1 Identification:
- file test.
- spark test.

3. Hand ToolsandBench Work.

3.1 Hand tools.
- Hand tools: care andmaintenance.
- Measuring tools: linear andangular.
- Steel rule, angle plate andscriber, etc.
- Bench vice, hand vice, Gclamp,chuck, etc.
- Cold chisels, hacksaw, files,taps and dies.
- Engineers’ hammers,mallets.
- Screwdrivers, spanners,drifts, etc.

3.1.1 Practical exercises involvingthe uses of handTools.

3.2 Benchwork- Filing, chiselling, threadingand sawing.

3.3 Care and maintenance of tools- Need for maintenance.

3.3.1 Practical exercises involvingcare andMaintenance – oiling, cleaning,greasing ofhand tools.

4. Heat treatmentof metals.

4.1 Importance of heat treatment ofmetals.

4.2 Heat Treatment processes.
- Annealing
- Case hardening
- Hardening
- Tempering
- Normalizing

4.2.1 Heat treatment of hand tools.

4.3 Materials and Equipment forheat treatment of metals.
- Materials used as coolingmedia for heat treatment ofmetals:coal, brine, water, air,oil and ash.
- Equipment: furnaces,pyrometer, oven quenchingtanks, blacksmith forge,oxy-acetylene flame.

4.4 Tempering colours andtemperature ranges.

4.4.1 Use of colour charts.

4.5 Safety precautions.

5. Hand forging.

5.1 Principles of forging
- Definition of forging
- Importance of forging
- Types of forging: cold, hotand drop forging.

5.2 Forging tools and Equipment.
- anvil, hammer, top andbottom swages, hardies,fullers, tongs and heartforge.

5.3 Forging operations– fullering, upsetting, bending,drawing down, punching,flattening, cutting, twistingand swaging.

5.3.1 Forging of chisels, centrepunch, scriber, doorbolts, hinges, hoes, pokers, etc.

5.4 Safety precautions.

6. Foundry Work.

6.1 Principles of Casting:
- Definition and importanceof casting.
- Method of casting: sandcasting.

6.2 Materials and equipment forsand casting.

6.3 Processes: pattern making(single piece, split and flatback), moulding, melting andpouring, dismantling andfettling.

6.3.1 Mould making and metalpouring.
6.3.2 Simple pattern making.

6.4 Core making (box, sand).

6.5 Casting defects (types andcauses)

6.6 Safety precautions.

7. Metal Joining

7.1 Types: temporary andpermanent.
- Temporary metal joiningprocesses.
- Explanation, identificationand uses of commonfasteners: Bolts, Nuts, Pinsand Screws.

7.2 Soft Soldering
- Tools and equipment.
Types of joints andprocesses.

7.2.1 Design and make an artifactinvolving soft soldering.

7.3 Hard soldering
- Tools and equipment
.Types of joints andprocesses. Procedure formaking hard soldered joints.

7.4 Gas and Electric Arc Welding.
- Welding equipment, weldingoperation, welding flames.Welding techniques andsafety.

7.5 Riveting
- Tools and equipment, typesof rivets and joints.

7.6 Safety precautions.

We provide educational resources/materials, curriculum guide, syllabus, scheme of work, lesson note & plan, waec, jamb, O-level & advance level GCE lessons/tutorial classes, on various topics, subjects, career, disciplines & department etc. for all the Class of Learners

8. SheetMetalwork.

8.1 Selection of materials,
- Low carbon sheet,galvanised sheet, tinplate, copper,aluminium andbrass sheet.
- Standard gauges.

8.2 Tools and Equipment:
- Stakes, Hammers,Mallets, Snips, Handlever, Shears, Folding bar,Sand bag and Slip roll.

8.3 Pattern development andcutting .
- Methods of Patterndevelopment: types, layout,and cutting out of patterns.

8.4 Basic Fabrication processes:
Bending, Raising,Hallowing,Sinking, Expanding andContracting.

8.4.1 Production of simple articlese.g. cans, funnelsand bowls.

8.5 Joints and joining
- Types of joints: lap,grooves, seams.
- Methods of joining:
- Self – tapping screw.
- Soft soldering.
- Seaming

8.6 Safety precautions.

9. Machine Toolsand processes.

9.1 Drilling, Drilling machines andreaming
- Description, types of toolsand setting up.
- Types of drilling machines:sensitive, pillar and radial.
- Drilling faults & remedies

9.1.1 Exercises on drillingmachine:drilling, reaming,countersinkingand counterboring.

9.2 Grinding, Description ofgrinding operations.
- Types of grinding wheelsand setting up of grindingoperation.

9.2.1 Grinding of single point tools,e.g.
scribers, chisels and lathetool bits.

9.3 Power sawing:- Description, types of toolsand machines.- Setting up of machineforpower sawing.

9.3.1 Using the power saws to cutmaterials for projects.

9.4 Lathe and lathe turningoperations.
- Parts and functions of thecentre lathe: the bed,headstock, tailstock,carriage feed and threadcutting mechanism.
- Operations on the centrelathe: parting off,knurling and taper - turning.
- Work holding devices:
3and 4 – jaw chucks,collets, face plates, catchplates and mandrels.
other accessories, steadiesand centres.

9.4.1 Operationsequence, exercisesinvolving step turning,drilling,boring, taper turning, knurling,vee thread- cutting andparting off.

9.5 Shaping Machines
- Types of shapers: swivel,tilting and universal table
- Parts of a shaping machineand their functionsPedestal, ram, saddle, tableand driving mechanism.
- Cutting tools materials andholders.

9.6 Cutting lubricants and coolants(soluble oil, straightcutting oil,soda solution).

9.7 Care, maintenance and safetyprecautions.

10. Finishes anddecorativeprocesses.

10.1 Types of finishes anddecorative processes
– polishing and buffing, spotfacing, planishing,colouring, plating, etching,lacquering, pickling andenamelling

10.1.1 Application offinishes on projects.

11. Design.

11.1 Identifying the Problem
- Problem areas: market,classroom, lorrypark,workshop.
- Problem definition:benefitsto be derived from finding solution(s) to the problemidentified.

11.2 Generating possible solutions
- Investigation proceduresand possible solutions:interviews, observation,visits, reading journals,books, photographs,sketches of solutionalternatives.
- Generation of possiblesolution. Selecting the bestsolution by: simplicity/complexity, availability ofmaterials and cost.
- Freehand sketching,working drawings,prototype, testing andproduction.

11.2.1 Produce a folio and realise theartifact.

LIST OF MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT FOR METAL WORK WORKSHOP

Recommended workshop size:
Purpose-bulk 14m length x 8m width x 4m height, well ventilated and illuminated.

Safety Equipment and Materials;

Fire extinguishers, first aid box, buckets of sand, CO2 wall charts etc.

1. Workshop Tools

(a) Cutting tools: Hacksaw, drills, chisels, snips, files, stock and die, scrappers,reamers, turning tools, milling machine, shaping tools.

(b) Measuring tools: Steel rules, inside and outside callipers, combination square,micrometer screw gauges,verniergauges, vernier protractors, spirit level, dialgauges.

(c) Marking out tools: Surface gauge, surface plate, try square, vee-block, dividers,odd leg callipers, trammels, straight edge, scriber, angle plates, centre punches.

(d) Driving tools; pin punches, screwdrivers, hammers, drifts.

(e) Work holding devices: clamps, vices, pliers, mole grips, self gripping wrenches.

(f) Forging tools: hardies, fullers, tongs, swages, anvils, anvil stands, letter stampsand stakes, sand bag.

2. Workshop Equipment

Work benches, marking out table, blacksmith’s hearth, foundry furnace, sets of toolboxes, oil cans, computer hard ware and soft ware.

3. Machine Tools

Centre lathe(with accessories), sensitive and pillar drilling machines, pedestal grinder,power hacksaw, folding machine, shears, rolling machine, milling, shaping machine, etc

Welding Equipment

Standard arc welding machine accessories, electrodes, shields, aprons, chippinghammers, welding boots, standard oxygen and acetylene cylinders, filler rods, sparklighters, regulators, nozzles, etc.

Materials

Mild steel round bars (03mm – 050mm), Flat bars (of different sizes), Square bars,Hexagonal bars, Mild steel sheets and plates, Galvanized and tinned sheets. Projects maybe constructed with non-ferrous metal e.g. Copper, Aluminium and Brass.

RECOMMENDED TEXT BOOKS

1. Workshop Technology (parts 1 and 2) - W.A.T. Chapman
2. Metalwork Technology - G. H. Thomas
3. Metal Technology - C. E. S. A. C.
4. Introductory Technology - C. E. S. A. C.
5. Welding Technology - Gourd
6. Mechanical Engineering practice - A. Green and W.H. Howe
7. Crafts Theory and Related Studies - R.T. Pritchard Vol. 1 & 2
8. Mechanical Engineering - R.I. Timings
9. Metalwork Theory, Books 1, 2, 3, & 4(Metric Edition) - P.F. Lye – Harrap, Lon
10. Design Technology in Metal and Plastics(Metric Edition) - G.H. Thomas-John Murray
11. Jab Metalwork Projects for African Schoolsand Colleges - R. Edward – Cassel Lon
12. Basic Engineering Processes - S. Crawford
13. Metalwork - R. Sandham& F.R. Willmers
14. Workshop Processes and Materials - J. V. Courtney
15. Metalwork Projects and Theory (S.I. Units) - K. Parkinson
16. The Theory and Practice of Metalwork(3rd Edition) - G. Love
17. Metalwork for Schools and Colleges - J. N. Green
18. Metal Cutting Machine tools - Adejuyigbe, S. B.
19. Metalwork Technology - J.K.N. SackeyS. K. Amoakohene.

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We provide educational resources/materials, curriculum guide, syllabus, scheme of work, lesson note & plan, waec, jamb, O-level & advance level GCE lessons/tutorial classes, on various topics, subjects, career, disciplines & department etc. for all the Class of Learners