# Lesson Plan for Teachers

## Lesson Note for Junior Secondary

### Learning Objectives:

By the end of the lesson learners should be able to:
1. #### Say what probability is.

2. Probability is the study of possible occurrences in everyday life. When we say possible occurrences, we are referring to possible events such as rainfalls, sunshine, winning a football match, lossing a football match, eating, going to the library etc.

4. #### Determine the range of probability measures (Solve problems on probability).

5. Example.
If we toss a fair die, what is the probability that it will show 3?

Solution.
Probability of three

Number of required outcome = { 3 } is One(1) Number of possible outcome = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 } is Six(6)
ꓽ∙ Pr(3) = 1/6

### Rationale:

Probability is applicable in our daily life in such areas as weather prediction, predicting the risks of new medical treatments, predicting results in sports, among many areas. Moreover, companies and business people can use probability to predict the chances that their sales will go up by a certain per cent in a given year. Probability enables you to make decisions in situations where there are observable patterns with some degree of uncertainty.

### Prerequisite/ Previous knowledge:

Students have learnt Fractions, Decimals, Algebra, Statistics 1.

### Learning Materials:

Computing device, manila paper, coins.

### Reference Materials:

New General Mathematics for Junior Secondary Schools Books 1 By Pearson

### Lesson Development:

##### LEARNING POINTS
INTRODUCTION
full class session (5mins)
Comparing fractions and decimals
1/4 of 3
Pupils respond to the teacher's question.
1/4 x 3 = 3/4
Multiplication of fraction, Division of fractions, Conversion of decimals to fractions and vice versa. Revision of the previous knowledge on fractions and decimals.
STEP 1
2mins.
Development
Teacher to provide learners with coins and allow them to identify the items. Pupils identify the apparatus as coins Being able to identify the apparatus.
STEP 2
5mins.
The teacher asks learners to toss coins and progressively compare the cumulative fractions of Head(H) or Tail(T) at a tally of 10. Learners toss coins and progressively compare the cumulative fractions of Head(H) or Tail(T) at a tally of 10.

Determine the probability measure of Head and Tail of fair toss coin at entries of 10.
EVALUATION
7mins
The teacher asked the pupils questions.
1. From your calculation of toss coin at entries of 10, what is the meaning of probability?
2. What is the general formula for probability?
3. Calculate the probability of a toss coin for a Heads or a Tails at entries of 12.
4. What is your observation for Pr(H) and Pr(T) above
Pupils respond to teachers questions.
• 1)  Probability(Pr) is the study of possible occurrences in everyday life.
• 2)  the General formula for probability(Pr).

• 3)  at a tally of 12 entries Pr (H) and Pr(T).

• 4)  the General formula for probability(Pr).
Asking the learners questions to assess the achievement of the set objectives.
CONCLUSION
3mins
A coin is tossed once for two teams playing a football match. What is the probability that the team with the head starts the game?

HINT:   there are only two outcomes in a coin namely: 1 for head and 1 for a tail.
The students respond to the teacher's question.

The probability range
0 ≤ P(x) ≤ 1
ASSIGNMENT Give them other problems to solve.
1. In a class of 24 boys, and 12 girls. If a student is picked at random, what is the probability that the student is a girl?
2. What is the probability that a bottle of mineral chosen at random from a crate containing 8 bottles of Fanta, 4 bottles of Sprite and 12 bottles of Coke is:
a) Coke
b) Sprite
3. A letter is chosen at random from the word, PROBABILITY. Find the probability of choosing the letter B.

HINT: The letter PROBABILITY has 2 B's out of a total of 11
4. A letter is chosen at random from the English alphabet. Find the probability that it is a B.
5. A fair six-sided die is thrown once. What is the probability of obtaining a 4?
6. What is the probability of having an odd number in a single toss of a fair die?
Pupils solve other problems. Improving their level of understanding on the probability range 0 ≤ P(x) ≤ 1.