# PHYSICS

## JAMB SYLLABUS ON PHYSICS

### GENERAL OBJECTIVES:

The aim of the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) syllabus in Physics isto prepare the candidates for the Board’s examination. It is designed to test theirachievement of the course objectives, which are to:

(1) sustain their interest in physics;(2) develop attitude relevant to physics that encourage accuracy, precision andobjectivity;

(3) interpret physical phenomena, laws, definitions, concepts and other theories;

(4) demonstrate the ability to solve correctly physics problems using relevant theoriesand concepts.

### DETAILED SYLLABUS

1. MEASUREMENTS AND UNITS | |
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## TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES | ## OBJECTIVES, |

## (a) Length, area and volume:Metre rule,Venier calipers MicrometerScrew-guage, measuring cylinder. | i. identify the units of length, area andvolume; ii. use different measuring instruments; iii. determine the lengths, surface areasand volume of regular and irregularbodies; |

## (b) Mass(i) unit of mass;(ii) use of simple beam balance; (iii) concept of beam balance. | iv. identify the unit of mass; v. use simple beam balance, e.gBuchart’s balance and chemicalbalance; |

## (c) Time(i) unit of time;(ii) time-measuring devices. | vi. identify the unit of time; vii. use different time-measuringdevices; |

## (d) Fundamental physical quantities | viii. relate the fundamental physicalquantities to their units; |

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## (e) Derived physical quantities and theirunits(i) Combinations of fundamental quantitiesand determination of their units; | ix. deduce the units of derived physicalquantities; |

## (f) Dimensions(i) definition of dimensions(ii) simple examples | x. determine the dimensions ofphysical quantities; xi. use the dimensions to determine theunits of physical quantities; xii. test the homogeneity of an equation; |

## (g) Limitations of experimentalmeasurements(i) accuracy of measuringinstruments;(ii) simple estimation of errors; (iii) significant figures; (iv) standard form. | xiii. determine the accuracy ofmeasuring instruments; xiv. estimate simple errors; xv. express measurements in standardform. |

## (h) Measurement, position, distance anddisplacement(i) concept of displacement;(ii) distinction between distance anddisplacement; (iii) concept of position and coordinates; (iv) frame of reference. | xvi. use strings, meter ruler andengineering calipers, verniercalipers and micrometer, screwguage; xvii. note the degree of accuracy; xviii. identify distance travel in a specifieddirection; xix. use compass and protractor to locatepoints/directions; xx. use Cartesians systems to locatepositions in x-y plane; xxi. plot graph and draw inference fromthe graph. |

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2. Scalars and Vectors | |

## TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES | ## OBJECTIVES, |

## Scalars and Vectors(i) definition of scalar and vector quantities;(ii) examples of scalar and vector quantities; (iii) relative velocity; (iv) resolution of vectors into twoperpendicular directions includinggraphical methods ofsolution. | i. distinguish between scalar andvector quantities; ii. give examples of scalar and vectorquantities; iii. determine the resultant of two ormore vectors; iv. determine relative velocity; v. resolve vectors into twoperpendicular components; vi. use graphical methods to solvevector problems. |

3. Motion | |

## TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES | ## OBJECTIVES, |

## (a) Types of motion:translational, oscillatory, rotational, spinand random | i. identify different types of motion; |

## (b) Relative motion (d) Types of force(i) contact (ii) force field | ii. solve numerical problem on collinearmotion; iii. identify force as cause of motion; iv. identify push and pull as forms offorce; v. identify electric and magneticattractions, gravitational pull as formsof field forces; |

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## (e) linear motion(i) speed, velocity and acceleration;(ii) equations of uniformly acceleratedmotion; (iii) motion under gravity; (iv) distance-time graph and velocity timegraph; (v) instantaneous velocity andacceleration. | vi. differentiate between speed, velocityand acceleration; vii. deduce equations of uniformlyaccelerated motion; viii. solve problems of motion undergravity; ix. interpret distance-time graph andvelocity-time graph; x. compute instantaneous velocity andacceleration; |

## (f) Projectiles:(i) calculation of range, maximum heightand time of flight from the ground anda height;(ii) applications of projectile motion. | xi. establish expressions for the range,maximum height and time of flight ofprojectiles; xii. solve problems involving projectilemotion; |

## (g) Newton’s laws of motion:(i) inertia, mass and force;(ii) relationship between mass andacceleration; (iii) impulse and momentum; (iv) force – time graph; (v) conservation of linear momentum(Coefficient of restitution notnecessary). | xiii. solve numerical problems involvingimpulse and momentum; xiv. interpretation of area under force –time graph; xv. interpret Newton’s laws of motion; xvi. compare inertia, mass and force; xvii. deduce the relationship between massand acceleration; xviii. interpret the law of conservation oflinear momentum and application; |

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## (h) Motion in a circle:(i) angular velocity and angularacceleration;(ii) centripetal and centrifugal forces; (iii) applications. | xix. establish expression for angularvelocity, angular acceleration andcentripetal force; |

## (i) Simple Harmonic Motion (S.H.M):(i) definition and explanation of simpleharmonic motion;(ii) examples of systems that executeS.H.M; (iii) period, frequency and amplitude ofS.H.M; (iv) velocity and acceleration of S.H.M; (iii) simple treatment of energy change inS.H.M; (iv) force vibration and resonance (simpletreatment). | xx. solve numerical problems involvingmotion in a circle; xxi. establish the relationship betweenperiod and frequency; xxii. analyse the energy changesoccurring during S.H.M; xxiii. identify different types of forcedvibration; xxiv. enumerate applications ofresonance. |

## 4 Gravitational field(i) Newton’s law of universal gravitation;(ii) gravitational potential; (iii) conservative and non-conservativefields; (iv) acceleration due to gravity; (v) variation of g on the earth’s surface; (vi) distinction between mass and weightescape velocity; (vii) parking orbit and weightlessness. | i. identify the expression for gravitationalforce between two bodies; ii. apply Newton’s law of universalgravitation; iii. give examples of conservative and nonconservativefields; iv. deduce the expression for gravitationalfield potentials; v. identify the causes of variation of g onthe earth’s surface; vi. differentiate between mass and weight; vii. determine escape velocity. |

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5. Equilibrium of Forces | |

## TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES | ## OBJECTIVES, |

## (a) equilibrium of particles:(i) equilibrium of coplanar forces;(ii) triangles and polygon of forces; (iii) Lami’s theorem. | i. apply the conditions for the equilibrium ofcoplanar forces to solve problems; ii. use triangle and polygon laws of forces tosolve equilibrium problems; |

## (b) principles of moments(i) moment of a force;(ii) simple treatment and moment of a couple(torgue); (iii) applications. | iii. use Lami’s theorem to solve problems;iv. analyse the principle of moment of aforce;v. determine moment of a force and couple;vi. describe some applications of moment ofa force and couple; |

## (c) conditions for equilibrium of rigid bodiesunder the action of parallel and nonparallelforces(i) resolution and composition of forces intwo perpendicular directions;(ii) resultant and equilibrant. | vii. apply the conditions for the equilibriumof rigid bodies to solve problems; viii. resolve forces into two perpendiculardirections; ix. determine the resultant and equilibrant offorces; |

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## (d) centre of gravity and stability(i) stable, unstable and neutral equilibra. | x. differentiate between stable, unstable andneutral equilibra. |

## 6. (a) Work, Energy and Power(i) definition of work, energy and power;(ii) forms of energy; (iii) conservation of energy; (iv) qualitative treatment between differentforms of energy; (v) interpretation of area under the forcedistancecurve. | i. differentiate between work, energy andpower; ii. compare different forms of energy,giving examples; iii. apply the principle of conservation ofenergy; iv. examine the transformation betweendifferent forms of energy; v. interpret the area under the force –distance curve. vi. solve numerical problems in work,energy and power. |

## (b) Energy and society(i) sources of energy;,(ii) renewable and non-renewable energy e.g.coal, crude oil etc.; (iii) uses of energy; (iv) energy and development; (v) energy diversification; (vi) environmental impact of energy e.g.global warming, greenhouse effect andspillage; (vii) energy crises; (viii) conversion of energy; (ix) devices used in energy production. | i. itemize the sources of energy; ii. distinguish between renewable and nonrenewableenergy, examples should begiven; iii. identify methods of energy transition; iv. explain the importance of energy in thedevelopment of the society; v. analyze the effect of energy use to theenvironment; vi. identify the impact of energy on theenvironment; vii. identify energy sources that are friendlyor hazardous to the environment; viii. identify energy uses in their immediateenvironment; ix. suggests ways of safe energy use |

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## (c) Dams and energy production(i) location of dams(ii) energy production | x. state different forms of energyconversion. |

## (d) nuclear energy(i) solar collector;(ii) solar panel for energy supply. | |

## 7. Friction(i) static and dynamic friction;(ii) coefficient of limiting friction and itsdetermination; (iii) advantages and disadvantages of friction (iv) reduction of friction; (v) qualitative treatment of viscosity andterminal velocity; (vi) Stoke’s law. | i. differentiate between static and dynamicfriction; ii. determine the coefficient of limitingfriction; iii. compare the advantages anddisadvantages of friction; iv. suggest ways by which friction can bereduced; v. analyse factors that affect viscosity andterminal velocity; vi. apply Stoke’s law. |

## 8. Simple Machines(i) definition of simple machines;(ii) types of machines; (iii) mechanical advantage, velocity ratio andefficiency of machines. | i. identify different types of simplemachines; ii. solve problems involving simplemachines. |

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## 9. Elasticity(i) elastic limit, yield point, breaking point,Hooke’s law and Young’s modulus;(ii) the spring balance as a device for measuringforce; (iii.) work done per unit volume in springs andelastic strings; | i. interpret force-extension curves; ii. interpret Hooke’s law and Young’smodulus of a material; iii use spring balance to measure force; iv. determine the work done in spring andelastic strings. |

10. Pressure | |

## TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES | ## OBJECTIVES, |

## (a) Atmospheric Pressure(i) definition of atmospheric pressure;(ii) units of pressure (S.I) units (Pa); (iii) measurement of pressure; (iv) simple mercury barometer; aneroid barometer and manometer; (v) variation of pressure with height; (vi) the use of barometer as an altimeter. | i. recognize the S.I units of pressure (Pa); ii. identify pressure measuring instruments; iii. relate the variation of pressure to height; iv. use a barometer as an altimeter; v. determine the relationship betweenpressure depth and density; vi apply the principle of transmission ofpressure in liquids to solve problems |

## (b) Pressure in liquids(i) the relationship between pressure, depth anddensity (P = ρgh)(ii) transmission of pressure in liquids (Pascal’sPrinciple)(iii) application | vii. determine and apply the principle ofpressure in liquid. |

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## 11. Liquids At Rest(i) determination of density of solids and liquids(ii) definition of relative density (iii) upthrust on a body immersed in a liquid (iv) Archimedes’ principle and law of floatationand applications, e.g. ships and hydrometers. | i. distinguish between density and relativedensity of substances; ii. determine the upthrust on a bodyimmersed in a liquid; iii. apply Archimedes’ principle and law offloatation to solve problems. |

## 12. Temperature and Its Measurement(i) concept of temperature(ii) thermometric properties (iii) calibration of thermometers (iv) temperature scales –Celsius and Kelvin. (v) types of thermometers (vi) conversion from one scale of temperature toanother | i. identify thermometric properties ofmaterials that are used for differentthermometers; ii. calibrate thermometers; iii. differentiate between temperature scalese.g. Celsius and Kelvin; iv. compare the types of thermometers; vi. convert from one scale of temperature toanother. |

13. Thermal Expansion | |

## TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES | ## OBJECTIVES, |

## (a) Solids(i) definition and determination of linear,volume and area expansivities;(ii) effects and applications, e.g. expansion inbuilding strips and railway lines; (iii) relationship between differentexpansivities. | i. determine linear and volumeexpansivities; ii. assess the effects and applications ofthermal expansivities; iii. determine the relationship betweendifferent expansivities; |

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## (b) Liquids(i) volume expansivity;(ii) real and apparent expansivities; (iii) determination of volume expansivity; (iv) anomalous expansion of water. | iv. determine volume, apparent, and realexpansivities of liquids; v. analyse the anomalous expansion ofwater. |

## 14. Gas Laws(i) Boyle’s law (isothermal process)(ii) Charle’s law (isobaric process) (iii) Pressure law (volumetric process) (iv) absolute zero of temperature (v) general gas equation: (PV/T = constant ) (vi) ideal gas equation e.g. Pv = nRT (iv) Van der waal gas | i. interpret the gas laws; ii. use expression of these laws to solvenumerical problems; iii. interpret Van der waal equation for onemole of a real gas. |

## 15. Quantity of Heat(i) heat as a form of energy;(ii) definition of heat capacity and specific heatcapacity of solids and liquids; (iii) determination of heat capacity and specific heat capacity of substances by simplemethods e.g. method of mixtures andelectrical method and Newton’s law ofcooling | i. differentiate between heat capacity andspecific heat capacity; ii. determine heat capacity and specific heatcapacity using simple methods; iii. solve numerical problems. |

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## 16. Change of State(i) latent heat;(ii) specific latent heats of fusion andvaporization; (iii) melting, evaporation and boiling; (iv) the influence of pressure and of dissolvedsubstances on boiling and melting points; (v) application in appliances. | i. differentiate between latent heat andspecific latent heats of fusion andvaporization; ii. differentiate between melting,evaporation and boiling; iii. examine the effects of pressure and ofdissolved substance on boiling andmelting points. iv. solve numerical problems. |

## 17. Vapours(i) unsaturated and saturated vapours;(ii) relationship between saturated vapourpressure (S.V.P) and boiling; (iii) determination of S.V.P by barometer tubemethod; (iv) formation of dew, mist, fog, and rain; (v) study of dew point, humidity and relativehumidity; (vi) hygrometry; estimation of the humidity ofthe atmosphere using wet and dry bulbhygrometers. | i. distinguish between saturated andunsaturated vapours; ii. relate saturated vapour pressure toboiling point; iii. determine S.V.P by barometer tubemethod; iv. differentiate between dew point,humidity and relative humidity; vi. estimate the humidity of the atmosphereusing wet and dry bulb hygrometers; vii. solve numerical problems. |

18. Structure of Matter and Kinetic Theory | |

## TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES | ## OBJECTIVES, |

## (a) Molecular nature of matter(i) atoms and molecules;(ii) molecular theory: explanation of Brownianmotion, diffusion, surface tension,capillarity, adhesion, cohesion and angles ofcontact e.tc; (iii) examples and applications. | i. differentiate between atoms andmolecules; ii. use molecular theory to explainBrownian motion, diffusion, surface,tension, capillarity, adhesion, cohesionand angle of contact; |

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## (b) Kinetic Theory(i) assumptions of the kinetic theory(ii) using the theory to explain the pressure exerted by gas, Boyle’s law, Charles’ law,melting, boiling, vapourization, change intemperature, evaporation, etc. | iii. examine the assumptions of kinetictheory; iv. interpret kinetic theory, the pressureexerted by gases, Boyle’s law, Charles’slaw, melting, boiling, vaporization,change in temperature, evaporation, etc. |

## 19. Heat Transfer(i) conduction, convection and radiation asmodes of heat transfer;(ii) temperature gradient, thermal conductivityand heat flux; (iii) effect of the nature of the surface on theenergy radiated and absorbed by it; (iv) the conductivities of common materials;(v) the thermos flask; (vi) land and sea breeze; (vii) engines. | i. differentiate between conduction,convection and radiation as modes ofheat transfer; ii. solve problems on temperature gradient,thermal conductivity and heat flux; iii. assess the effect of the nature of thesurface on the energy radiated andabsorbed by it; iv. compare the conductivities of commonmaterials; v. relate the component part of the workingof the thermos flask; vi. differentiate between land and seabreeze; vii. analyse the principles of operatinginternal combustion jet engines, rockets. |

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20. Waves | |

## TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES | ## OBJECTIVES, |

## (a) Production and Propagation(i) wave motion;(ii) vibrating systems as source of waves; (iii) waves as mode of energy transfer; (iv) distinction between particle motion andwave motion; (v) relationship between frequency, wavelengthand wave velocity (V=f λ); (vi) phase difference, wave number and wavevector; (vii) progressive wave equation e.g. Y = A sin 2π/λ(vt ± χ) | i. interpret wave motion; ii. identify vibrating systems as sources ofwaves; iii use waves as a mode of energy transfer; iv distinguish between particle motion andwave motion; v. relate frequency and wave length to wavevelocity; vi. determine phase difference, wavenumber and wave vector; vii. use the progressive wave equation tocompute basic wave parameters; |

## (b) Classification(i) types of waves; mechanical andelectromagnetic waves;(ii) longitudinal and transverse waves; (iii) stationary and progressive waves; (iv) examples of waves from springs, ropes,stretched strings and the ripple tank. | viii. differentiate between mechanical andelectromagnetic waves; ix. differentiate between longitudinal andtransverse waves; x. distinguish between stationary andprogressive waves; xi. indicate the example of waves generatedfrom springs, ropes, stretched stringsand the ripple tank; |

## (c) Characteristics/Properties(i) reflection, refraction, diffraction andplane polarization;(ii) superposition of waves e.g. interference (iii) Beats; (iv) Doppler effects (qualitative treatmentonly). | xii. differentiate between reflection,refraction, diffraction and planepolarization of waves; xiii. analyse the principle of superposition ofwaves; xiv. solve numerical problems on wavesexplain the phenomenon of beat, beatfrequency and uses; xv. explain Doppler effect of sound andapplication |

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## 21. Propagation of Sound Waves(i) the necessity for a material medium;(ii) speed of sound in solids, liquids and air; (iii) reflection of sound; echoes, reverberationand their applications; (iv) disadvantages of echoes andreverberations. | i. determine the need for a material medium in the propagation of sound waves; ii. compare the speed of sound in solids,liquids and air; iii. relate the effects of temperature andpressure to the speed of sound in air; iv. solve problem on echoes, reverberationand speed; v. compare the disadvantages andadvantages of echoes. vi. solve problems on echo, reverberationand speed of sound. |

## 22. Characteristics of Sound Waves(i) noise and musical notes;(ii) quality, pitch, intensity and loudness andtheir application to musical instruments; (iii) simple treatment of overtones produced byvibrating strings and their columns F _{o} = 1/2L √(T/μ) where μ = m/ℓ (iv) acoustic examples of resonance; (v) frequency of a note emitted by air columnsin closed and open pipes in relation to theirlengths. | i. differentiate between noise and musicalnotes; ii. analyse quality, pitch, intensity andloudness of sound notes; iii. evaluate the application of (ii) above inthe construction of musical instruments; iv. identify overtones by vibrating stingsand air columns; iv. itemize acoustical examples ofresonance; vi. determine the frequencies of notes emitted by air columns in open andclosed pipes in relation to their lengths. |

23. Light Energy | |

## TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES | ## OBJECTIVES, |

## (a) Sources of Light(i) natural and artificial sources of light;(ii) luminous and non-luminous objects. | i. compare the natural and artificial sourcesof light; ii. differentiate between luminous and nonluminous objects; |

## (b) Propagation of light(i) speed, frequency and wavelength of light;(ii) formation of shadows and eclipse; (iii) the pin-hole camera. | iii. relate the speed, frequency andwavelength of light; iv. interpret the formation of shadows andeclipses; v. solve problems using the principle ofoperation of a pin-hole camera. |

## We provide educational resources/materials, curriculum guide, syllabus, scheme of work, lesson note & plan, waec, jamb, O-level & advance level GCE lessons/tutorial classes, on various topics, subjects, career, disciplines & department etc. for all the Class of Learners | |

## 24. Reflection of Light at Plane and CurvedSurfaces(i) laws of reflection;(ii) application of reflection of light; (iii) formation of images by plane, concave andconvex mirrors and ray diagrams; (iv) use of the mirror formula: 1/f = 1/u + 1/v (v) linear magnification. | i. interpret the laws of reflection; ii. illustrate the formation of images byplane, concave and convex mirrors; iii. apply the mirror formula to solve opticalproblems; iv. determine the linear magnification; v. apply the laws of reflection of light tothe working of periscope, kaleidoscopeand the sextant. |

## 25. Refraction of Light Through at Plane andCurved Surfaces(i) explanation of refraction in terms ofvelocity of light in the media;(ii) laws of refraction; (iii) definition of refractive index of a medium; (iv) determination of refractive index of glassand liquid using Snell’s law; (v) real and apparent depth and lateraldisplacement; (vi) critical angle and total internal reflection. | i. interpret the laws of reflection; ii. determine the refractive index of glassand liquid using Snell’s law; iii. determine the refractive index using theprinciple of real and apparent depth; iv. determine the conditions necessary fortotal internal reflection; v. examine the use of periscope, prism,binoculars, optical fibre; vi. apply the principles of total internalreflection to the formation of mirage; vii. use of lens formula and ray diagrams tosolve optical numerical problems; |

## (b) Glass Prism(i) use of the minimum deviation formula:U = sin[(A+D)/2]/sin[A/2] (ii) type of lenses; (iii) use of lens formula: 1/f = 1/u + 1/v and Newton’s formular (F ^{2} = ab)(iv) magnification. | viii. determine the magnification of animage; ix. calculate the refractive index of a glassprism using minimum deviationformula. |

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## 26. Optical Instruments(i) the principles of microscopes, telescopes,projectors, cameras and the human eye(physiological details of the eye are notrequired);(ii) power of a lens; (iii) angular magnification; (iv) near and far points; (v) sight defects and their corrections. | i. apply the principles of operation of opticalinstruments to solve problems; ii. distinguish between the human eye andthe cameras; iii. calculate the power of a lens; iv. evaluate the angular magnification ofoptical instruments; v. determine the near and far points; vi. detect sight defects and their corrections. |

## 27. (a) Dispersion of light and colours(i) dispersion of white light by a triangularPrism;(ii) production of pure spectrum; (iii) colour mixing by addition and subtraction; (iv) colour of objects and colour filters; (v) rainbow. | i. identify primary colours and obtainsecondary colours by mixing; ii. understand the formation of rainbow; iii. deduce why objects have colours; iv. relate the expression for gravitationalforce between two bodies; v. apply Newton’s law of universalgravitation; vi. analyse colours using colour filters; |

## (b)Electromagnetic spectrum(i) description of sources and uses of varioustypes of radiation. | vii. analyse the electromagnetic spectrum inrelation to their wavelengths, sources,detection and uses. |

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## 28. Electrostatics(i) existence of positive and negative chargesin matter;(ii) charging a body by friction, contact andinduction; (iii) electroscope; (iv) Coulomb’s inverse square law, electricfield and potential; (v) electric field intensity and potentialdifference; (vi) electric discharge and lightning. | i. identify charges; ii. examine uses of an electroscope; iii. apply Coulomb’s square law ofelectrostatics to solve problems; iv. deduce expressions for electric fieldintensity and potential difference; v. identify electric field flux patterns ofisolated and interacting charges; vi. analyse the distribution of charges on aconductor and how it is used inlightening conductors. |

## 29. Capacitors(i) types and functions of capacitors;(ii) parallel plate capacitors; (iii) capacitance of a capacitor; (iv) the relationship between capacitance, areaseparation of plates and medium betweenthe plates C = EA/d (v) capacitors in series and parallel; (vi) energy stored in a capacitor. | i. determine uses of capacitors; ii. analyse parallel plate capacitors; iii. determine the capacitance of acapacitor; iv. analyse the factors that affect thecapacitance of a capacitor; v. solve problems involving thearrangement of a capacitor; vi. determine the energy stored incapacitors. |

## 30. Electric Cells(i) simple voltaic cell and its defects;(ii) Daniel cell, Leclanche cell (wet and dry); (iii) lead –acid accumulator and Nickel-Iron(Nife) Lithium lron and Mercury cadmium; (iv) maintenance of cells and batteries (detailtreatment of the chemistry of a cell is notrequired); (v) arrangement of cells; (vi) efficiency of a cell. | i. identify the defects of the simple voltaiccell and their correction; ii. compare different types of cellsincluding solar cell; iii. compare the advantages of lead-acid andNikel iron accumulator; iv. solve problems involving series andparallel combination of cells. |

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## 31. Current Electricity(i) electromagnetic force (emf), potentialdifference (p.d.), current, internal resistanceof a cell and lost Volt;(ii) Ohm’s law; (iii) measurement of resistance; (iv) meter bridge; (v) resistance in series and in parallel and theircombination; (vi) the potentiometer method of measuringemf, current and internal resistance of a cell. (v) electrical networks. | i. differentiate between emf, p.d., currentand internal resistant of a cell; ii. apply Ohm’s law to solve problems; iii. use metre bridge to calculate resistance; iv. compute effective total resistance of bothparallel and series arrangement ofresistors; v. determine the resistivity and theconductivity of a conductor; vi. measure emf. current and internalresistance of a cell using thepotentiometer; vii. identify the advantages of thepotentiometer; viii. apply Kirchoff’s law in electricalnetworks. |

## 32. Electrical Energy and Power(i) concepts of electrical energy and power;(ii) commercial unit of electric energy andpower; (iii) electric power transmission (v) heating effects of electric current; (vi) electrical wiring of houses; (vii) use of fuses. | i. apply the expressions of electrical energyand power to solve problems; ii. analyse how power is transmitted fromthe power station to the consumer; iii. identify the heating effects of currentand its uses; iv. identify the advantages of parallelarrangement over series; v. determine the fuse rating. |

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## 33. Magnets and Magnetic Fields(i) natural and artificial magnets;(ii) magnetic properties of soft iron and steel; (iii) methods of making magnets anddemagnetization; (iv) concept of magnetic field; (v) magnetic field of a permanent magnet; (vi) magnetic field round a straight currentcarrying conductor, circular wire andsolenoid; (vii) properties of the earth’s magnetic field; north and south poles, magnetic meridianand angle of dip and declination; (viii) flux and flux density; (ix) variation of magnetic field intensity overthe earth’s surface (x) applications: earth’s magnetic field innavigation and mineral exploration. | i. give examples of natural and artificialmagnets; ii. differentiate between the magneticproperties of soft iron and steel; iii. identify the various methods of makingmagnets and demagnetizing magnets; iv. describe how to keep a magnet fromlosing its magnetism; v. determine the flux pattern exhibited whentwo magnets are placed together pole to pole; vi. determine the flux of a current carryingconductor, circular wire and solenoidincluding the polarity of the solenoid; vii. determine the flux pattern of a magnetplaced in the earth’s magnetic fields; viii. identify the magnetic elements of theearth’s flux; ix. determine the variation of earth’smagnetic field on the earth’s surface; x. examine the applications of the earth’smagnetic field. |

## 34. Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor ina Magnetic Field(i) quantitative treatment of force betweentwo parallel current-carrying conductors;(ii) force on a charge moving in a magneticfield; (iii) the d. c. motor; (iv) electromagnets; (v) carbon microphone; (vi) moving coil and moving iron instruments; (vii) conversion of galvanometers toammeters and voltmeter using shuntsand multipliers; (viii) sensitivity of a galvanometer. | i. determine the direction of force on acurrent carrying conductor usingFleming’s left-hand rule; ii. interpret the attractive and repulsiveforces between two parallel currentcarryingconductors using diagrams;iii. determine t he relationship between theforce, magnetic field strength, velocityand the angle through which the chargeenters the field; iv. interpret the working of the d. c. motor; v. analyse the principle of electromagnetsand give examples of its application; vi. compare moving iron and moving coilinstruments; vii. convert a galvanometer into an ammeteror a voltmeter; viii. identify the factors affecting thesensitivity of a galvanometer. |

## 35. (a) Electromagnetic Induction(i) Faraday’s laws of electromagneticinduction;(ii) factors affecting induced emf; (iii) Lenz’s law as an illustration of theprinciple of conservation of energy; (iv) a.c. and d.c generators; (v) transformers; (vi) the induction coil. | i. interpret the laws of electromagneticinduction; ii. identify factors affecting induced emf; iii. recognize how Lenz’s law illustrates theprinciple of conservation of energy; iv. interpret the diagrammatic set up of A.C. generators; v. identify the types of transformer; vi. examine principles of operation oftransformers; |

## (b) Inductance(i) explanation of inductance;(ii) unit of inductance;(iii) energy stored in an inductor: E=(1/2)I ^{2}L(iv) application/uses of inductors. | vii. assess the functions of an induction coil; viii. draw some conclusions from theprinciples of operation of an inductioncoil; ix. interpret the inductance of an inductor; x. recognize units of inductance; xi. calculate the effective total inductance inseries and parallel arrangement; xii. deduce the expression for the energystored in an inductor; xiii. examine the applications of inductors; |

## (c) Eddy Current(i) reduction of eddy current(ii) applications of eddy current | xiv. describe the method by which eddycurrent losses can be reduced; xv. determine ways by which eddy currentscan be used. |

## 36. Simple A. C. Circuits(i) explanation of a.c. current and voltage;(ii) peak and r.m.s. values; (iii) a.c. source connected to a resistor; (iv) a.c source connected to a capacitorcapacitivereactance; (v) a.c source connected to an inductorinductive reactance; (vi) series R-L-C circuits; (vii) vector diagram, phase angle and powerfactor; (viii) resistance and impedance; (ix) effective voltage in an R-L-C circuits; (x) resonance and resonance frequency: F _{0} = 1/(2π√LC) | i. identify a.c. current and d.c. voltage; ii. differentiate between the peak and r.m.s.values of a.c.; iii. determine the phase difference betweencurrent and voltage; iv. interpret series R-L-C circuits; v. analyse vector diagrams; vi. calculate the effective voltage, reactanceand impedance; vii. recognize the condition by which thecircuit is at resonance; viii. determine the resonant frequency ofR-L-C arrangement; ix. determine the instantaneous power,average power and the power factor in a.c. circuits. |

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37. Conduction of Electricity Through | |

## TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES | ## OBJECTIVES, |

## (a) liquids(i) electrolytes and non-electrolyte;(ii) concept of electrolysis; (iii) Faraday’s laws of electrolysis; (iv) application of electrolysis, e.g.electroplating, calibration of ammeter etc. | i. distinguish between electrolytes and nonelectrolytes; ii. analyse the processes of electrolysis; iii. apply Faraday’s laws of electrolysis tosolve problems; |

## (b) gases(i) discharge through gases (qualitativetreatment only);(ii) application of conduction of electricitythrough gases; | iv. analyse discharge through gases; v. determine some applications/uses ofconduction of electricity through gases. |

| |

## 38. Elementary Modern Physics(i) models of the atom and their limitations;(ii) elementary structure of the atom; (iii) energy levels and spectra; (iv) thermionic and photoelectric emissions; (v) Einstein’s equation and stopping potential(vi) applications of thermionic emissions andphotoelectric effects; (vii) simple method of production of x-rays; (viii) properties and applications of alpha, betaand gamma rays; (ix) half-life and decay constant; (x) simple ideas of production of energy byfusion and fission; (xi) binding energy, mass defect and Einstein’sEnergy equation [ΔE = ΔMc ^{2}](xii) wave-particle paradox (duality of matter); (xiii) electron diffraction; (xiv) the uncertainty principle. | i. identify the models of the atom and writetheir limitations; ii. describe elementary structure of theatom; iii. differentiate between the energy levelsand spectra of atoms; iv. compare thermionic emission andphotoelectric emission; v. apply Einstein’s equation to solveproblems of photoelectric effect; vi. calculate the stopping potential; vii. relate some application of thermionicemission and photoelectric effects; viii. interpret the process involved in theproduction of x-rays; ix identify some properties and applicationsof x-rays; x. analyse elementary radioactivity; xi. distinguish between stable and unstablenuclei; xii. identify isotopes of an element; xiii. compare the properties of alpha, betaand gamma rays; xiv. relate half-life and decay constant of aradioactive element; xv. determine the binding energy, massdefect and Einstein’s energy equation; xvi. analyse wave particle duality; xvii. solve some numerical problems basedon the uncertainty principle and wave –particle duality. |

## 39. Introductory Electronics(i) distinction between metals, semiconductorsand insulators (elementary knowledge of bandgap is required);(ii) intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors; (iii) uses of semiconductors and diodes inrectification and transistors in amplification; (iv) n-type and p-type semiconductors; (v) elementary knowledge of diodes andtransistors. | i. differentiate between conductors, semiconductorsand insulators; ii. distinguish between intrinsic andextrinsic semiconductors; iii. distinguish between electron and holecarriers; iv. distinguish between n-type and p-typesemiconductor; v. analyse diodes and transistor vi. relate diodes to rectification andtransistor to amplification. |

#### RECOMMENDED TEXTS

Ike, E.E. (2014). Numerical Problems and Solutions in Physics, Jos: ENIC Publishers.

Nelson, M. (1977). Fundamentals of Physics, Great Britain: Hart Davis Education.

Nelson, M. and Parker … (1989). Advanced Level Physics, (Sixth Edition): Heinemann.

Okeke, P.N. and Anyakoha, M.W. (2000). Senior Secondary School Physics, Lagos: PacificPrinters.

Olumuyiwa, A. and Ogunkoya, O. O. (1992). Comprehensive Certificate Physics, Ibadan:University Press Plc.