HISTORY

JAMB SYLLABUS ON HISTORY



GENERAL OBJECTIVES:

The aim of the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) syllabus in History is to preparethe candidates for the Board’s examinations. It is designed to test their achievement of the courseobjectives, which are to:

1. impart knowledge of Nigerian history from earliest times to the present;
2. identify the similarities and relationships among the peoples of Nigeria as they relate to theissues of national unity and integration;
3. appreciate Nigerian history as the basis to understand West African and African history;
4. apply history to understand Nigerian and Africa’s relationship with the wider world;
5. analyse issues of modernization and development;
6. relate the past to the present and plan for the future.



DETAILED SYLLABUS

PART I:
SECTION A: THE NIGERIA AREA UPTO 1800
TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
OBJECTIVES, Candidates should be able to:

1. Land and Peoples of the Nigeria Area:

a. Geographical zones and the people.

b. The people’s relationship with theenvironment

c. Relations and integration among thepeoples of different zones.
i. identify the geographical zones and the people within them;

ii. establish the relationship between the people and theenvironment

iii. Comprehend the relationships among the various peoples ofthe Nigeria area.

2. Early Centres of Civilization:

a. Nok, Daima, Ife, Benin, Igbo Ukwu andIwo Eleru

b. Monuments and shelter systems:(Kuyambana, Durbi-ta-Kusheyi, citywalls and palaces)
i. examine the significance of various centres;

ii. establish the historical significance of the various monumentssuch as caves and rocky formations;

3. Origin and formation of States in theNigeria Area

a. Central Sudan –Kanuri and Hausa,states.

b. Niger-Benue Valley – Nupe, Jukun,Igala, Idoma, Tiv and Ebira

c. Eastern Forest Belt – Igbo and Ibibio

d. Western Forest Belt – Yoruba and Edo

e. Coastal and Niger–Delta - Efik, Ijo,Itsekiri and Urhobo

i. Factors influencing their originand migration
ii. Social and politicalorganizations
iii. Inter-State relations, religionwar and peace.
i. relate the different groups of people occupying the variouszones to their traditions of origin;

ii. determine the inter-state relations;

iii. account for their social and political organizations.

4. Economic Activities and Growth of States:

a. Agriculture – hunting, farming, fishing,animal husbandry and horticulture.

b. Industries – pottery, salt-making, ironsmelting,blacksmithing, leather-working,wood-carving, cloth-making, dyeing andfood processing.

c. Trade and trade routes:- local, regional, longdistance, including trans-Sahara trade.

d. Expansion of states.
i. identify the various economic activities of thepeople;

ii. differentiate the economic activities and specialties of thepeople;

iii. relate trade and other economic activities to the growth of thestates.

5. External Influences:

a. North Africans/Arabs

i. introduction, spread and impactof Islam;

ii. trans-Saharan trade.

b. Europeans:

i. early European trade with thecoastal states.

ii. the trans-Atlantic slave trade(origin, organization andimpact)
i. assess the impact of the contact with North Africa on the peopleand states South of the Sahara.

ii. examine the impact of early European contact with the coastalpeople;

iii. trace the origin, organization and impact of the trans-Atlanticslave trade.
SECTION B: THE NIGERIA AREA 1800 – 1900
TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
OBJECTIVES, Candidates should be able to:

1. The Sokoto Caliphate

The Sokoto Jihad – (causes, courses andconsequence)

a. The causes and the process of the jihad

b. The establishment and administration ofthe caliphate and relations withneighbours

c. The achievements and impact of thecaliphate.

d. The collapse of the caliphate.
i. examine the causes, and the processes of the Jihad;

ii. determine the factors that led to the rise of the caliphate;

iii. examine the administrative set-up of the caliphate and itsrelations with its neighbours;

iv. examine the impact of the caliphate;

v. trace the internal and external factors that led to the collapse ofthe caliphate.

2. Kanem-Borno

a. The collapse of the Saifawa dynasty

b. Borno under the Shehus

c. Borno under Rabeh
i. determine the factors that led to the collapse of the Saifawadynasty;

ii. examine Borno under the administration of the Shehus;

iii. assess the role of Rabeh in Borno’s history.

3. Yoruba land:

a. The fall of the Old Oyo Empire

b. The Yoruba wars and their impact

c. The peace treaty of 1886 and itsaftermath
i. examine the causes of the fall of the Old Oyo;

ii. examine the causes and effects of the Yoruba wars;

iii. assess the impact of the 1886 peace treaty.

4. Benin

a. Internal political development

b. Relations with neighbours

c. Relations with the Europeans
i. examine the internal political development;

ii. examine her relations with her neighbours;

iii. assess her relationship with the Europeans.

5. Nupe

a. Internal political development

b. Relations with neighbours.
i. examine Nupe internal political development.

ii. assess her relations with her neighbours.

6. Igbo

a. Internal political development

b. Relations with neigbhours.
i. examine Igbo internal political development.

ii. assess her relations with her neighbours.

7. Efik

a. Internal political development

b. Relations with neigbhours.
i. examine Efik internal political development.

ii. assess her relations with her neighbours.

8. European Penetration and Impact:

a. European exploration of the interior.

b. The suppression of the trans-Atlanticslave trade.

c. The development of commodity tradeand rise of consular authority.

d. Christian missionary activities.

e. The activities of the trading companies.

f. Impact of European activities on thecoast and the hinterland.
i. examine the motive for the exploration of the interior.

ii. give reasons for the suppression of the trans-Atlantic slavetrade;

iii. trace the development of commodity trade;

iv. examine missionary and European activities in the area;

v. assess the activities of the European trading companies;

vi. account for the rise of consular authority.

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9. British Conquest of the Nigeria Area:

a. Motives for the conquest.

b. Methods of the conquest and its result.

c. Resistance to and aftermath of theconquest.
i. determine the reasons for the conquest and the methods used;

ii. examine the various resistance to the conquest;

iii. evaluate the results and the aftermath of the conquest.
SECTION C: NIGERIA 1900 – 1960
TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
OBJECTIVES, Candidates should be able to:

1. The Establishment of Colonial Rule up to1914:

a. Administration of the protectorates
i. examine the administrative set-up of the protectorates;

2. The Amalgamation of 1914:

a. Reasons

b. Effects
i. examine the reasons for the 1914 Amalgamationand its effects.

3. Colonial Administration After theAmalgamation:

a. Central Administration:- Legislativeand Executive Councils

b. Indirect Rule – reasons, working andeffects

c. Local administrative institutions, NativeAuthorities, Native Courts and NativeTreasuries.

d. Resistance to colonial rule – Ekumeku
Movement in Asaba hinterland 1898 –1911,
the Satiru uprising 1906,
Egba andthe Anti-tax Agitation 1918,
and the AbaWomen Movement in 1929.
i. relate the composition of the central administrativeset-up to its consequences;

ii. identify the reasons for the introduction andworkings of the indirect rule system;

iii. assess the effects of indirect rule;

iv. examine the local administrative units.

v. account for the anti-colonial movements and theirsignificance.

4. iv. The Colonial Economy:

a. currency, taxation and forced labour

b. Infrastructure (transportation, post andtelecommunication)

c. Agriculture

d. Mining

e. Industry

f. Commerce

g. Banking.
i. examine the nature of the economy as it affects taxation.currency, infrastructures, agriculture, mining, industry,commerce and banking.

5. Social Development under Colonial Rule:

a. Western education

b. Urbanization/social integration

c. Improvement unions

d. Health institutions
i. identify the areas of social development under colonial rule;

ii. examine the impact of urbanization on the people;

iii. examine the level of social integration among the people.

6. Nationalism, Constitutional Developmentsand Independence:

a. The rise of nationalist movements;

b. The 1922 Clifford Constitution and therise of Nigeria’s first political party.

c. World War II and the agitation forindependence

d. The Richards Constitution of 1946

e. The Macpherson Constitution of 1951.

f. Party politics – regionalism, federalismand minorities agitations.

g. Lyttleton Constitution of 1954.

h. constitutional conferences in Lagos in1957 and London in 1958

i. The general elections of 1959 andindependence in 1960.
i. trace the emergence of the nationalist movement;

ii. assess the roles of the different constitutions inconstitutional development;

iii. examine the effect of World War II in the agitation forindependence and the constitutional developments;

iv trace the development of party politics and its impact onregionalism and minority question;

v. examine the impact of the constitutional conferences;

vi. determine the factors that aided the attainment ofindependence;
SECTION D: NIGERIA SINCEINDEPENDENCE
TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
OBJECTIVES, Candidates should be able to:

1. The politics of the First Republic andMilitary intervention

a. Struggle for the control of the centre;

b. Issue of revenue allocation

c. Minority question

d. The 1962/63 census controversies

e. The Action Group crisis and the GeneralElections of 1964/65.

f. The coup d’etat of January 1966 and theIronsi Regime.
i. give reasons behind the struggle for the control of the centre;

ii. account for the controversies in revenue allocation;

iii. account for the controversies generated by the minorityquestion and the creation of states;

iv. account for the controversies generated by the 1962/63census;

v. examine the problems created by the Action Group crisis andthe General Elections of 1964/65;

vi. assess the significance of military intervention and the IronsiRegime.

2. The Civil War:

Cause and effects

a. Causes

b. Course

c. Effects
i. examine the remote and immediate causes of the war;

ii. examine the course;

iii. assess the effects of the war;

3. The Gowon Regime.

i. assess the challenges and achievements of the Gowon Regime.

4. Murtala/Obasanjo Regime

i. assess the challenges and achievements of the Murtala/ObasanjoRegime;

5. The Second Republic

i. evaluate the challenges and achievements of the SecondRepublic.

6. The Buhari Regime

i. assess the challenges and achievements of the Buhari Regime.

7. The Babangida Regime

i. assess the challenges and achievements of the BabangidaRegime;

8. The Interim National Government (ING)

i. examine the role and challenges of the Interim NationalGovernment.

9. The Abacha Regime

i. assess the challenges and achievements of the Abacha Regime;ii. assess challenges and achievements of the Abdulsalami Regime;

10. Nigeria in International Organizations;

a. Economic Community of West AfricanStates (ECOWAS),

b. African Union (AU)

c. Commonwealth of Nations

d. Organization of Petroleum ExportingCountries (OPEC)

e. United Nations Organization

f. The role of Nigeria in ConflictResolution.
i. examine the role of Nigeria in ECOWAS

ii. assess the role of Nigeria in the AU

iii. evaluate the role of Nigeria in the Common Wealth of Nations

iv. assess the role of Nigeria in the OPEC

v. examine the role of Nigeria in the UN

vi. examine the role of Nigeria in conflict resolutions in theCongo, Chad, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea and the Sudan.
PART II:
AFRICA AND THE WIDERWORLD SINCE 1800
SECTION A: WEST AND NORTH AFRICA
TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
OBJECTIVES, Candidates should be able to:

1. Islamic Reform Movements and StateBuilding in West Africa:

a. Relationship between Sokoto and otherJihads.

b. The Jihads of Seku Ahmadu and Al-HajjUmar

c. The activities of Samori Toure
i. establish the relationship between the Sokoto Jihad and otherJihads in West Africa:

ii. compare the achievements of the Jihads of Seku Ahmadu andAl-Hajj Umar.

iii. examine the activities of Samori Toure of the MadinkaEmpire.

2. Sierra Leone, Liberia and ChristianMissionary Activities in West Africa

a. The foundation of Sierra Leone andLiberia and the spread of Christianity

b. The activities and impact of Christianmissionaries.
i. determine the factors that led to the founding of Sierra Leoneand Liberia;

ii. examine the importance of Sierra Leone and Liberia in thespread and impact of Christianity in West Africa.

iii. assess the impact of Christian missionary activities in WestAfrica.

3. Egypt under Mohammed Ali and KhediveIsmail:

a. The rise of Mohammad Ali and hisreforms

b. Mohammad Ali’s relations with theEuropeans

c. Ismail’s fiscal policies

d. The British occupation of Egypt
i. determine the factors that aided Mohammad Ali’s rise topower and his reforms;

ii. establish the relationship between Mohammad Ali’s Empireand the Europeans;

iii. account for the fiscal policies of Ismail;

iv. examine the reasons for the British occupation of Egypt.

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SECTION B: EASTERN AND SOUTHERNAFRICA
TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
OBJECTIVES, Candidates should be able to:

1. The Omani Empire

a. The rise of the Omani Empire

b. The empire’s commercial and politicalrelations with the coast and the hinterland.

c. The Empire’s relations with the Europeans
i. determine the factors that led to the rise of the Omani Empire;

ii. assess the establishment of commercial and political relationsbetween the Omani Empire, the coast and the hinterland.

iii. examine the relationship that existed between the OmaniEmpire and the Europeans.

2. Ethiopia in the 19th century

a. The rise of Theodore II and his attempt atthe unification of Ethiopia

b. Menelik II and Ethiopian independence.
i. examine the factors that led to the rise of Theodore II as theEmperor of Ethiopia;

ii. analyse the strategies that were adopted to achieve Ethiopianunification.

iii. assess the role of Menelik II in the maintenance of Ethiopianindependence

3. The Mfecane:

a. The rise of the Zulu Nation

b. Causes, Course and consequences of theMfecane
i. trace events in Nguniland before the Mfecane;

ii. determine the factors that led to the rapid rise of Shaka.

iii. examine the causes, course and consequences of the Mfecane.

4. The Great Trek

a. The frontier wars

b. British intervention in the Boer Africanrelations

c. The Great Trek and its consequences.
i. determine the factors that led to the frontier wars;

ii. account for British intervention in the Boer-African relations;

iii. describe the nature of the Great Trek;

iv. examine its consequences.
SECTION C: IMPERIALISM, COLONIALISMAND PROBLEMS OF NATIONBUILDINGIN AFRICA
TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
OBJECTIVES, Candidates should be able to:

1. The New Imperialism and EuropeanOccupation of Africa

a. The New Imperialism in Africa

b. European scramble for Africa

c. The Berlin Conference

d. The occupation and resistance by Africans.
i. assess the causes of the New Imperialism

ii. examine the causes of the scramble;

iii. account for the significance of the Berlin Conference;

iv. examine African resistance to the occupation.

2. Patterns of Colonial Rule in Africa:

a. The British

b. The French

c. The Portuguese

d. The Belgians
examine and compare the patterns of colonial rule by thevarious European powers.

3. The Politics of Decolonization

a. Colonial policies and African discontent

b. The impact of the two world wars

c. Nationalist activities and the emergence ofpolitical parties and associations

d. Strategies for attaining independence
i. examine the policies employed by the colonial masters andthe magnitude of African discontent;

ii. assess the impact of the First and Second World Wars onAfrican nationalism;

iii. determine the strategies used in the attainment of independence.

4. Apartheid in South Africa

a. The origin of apartheid

b. Rise of Afrikaner nationalism

c. Enactment of apartheid laws

d. Internal reaction and the suppression ofAfrican nationalist movements

e. External reaction to apartheid, theFrontline States, the Commonwealth ofNations, OAU and the UN.

f. The dismantling of apartheid

g. Post-apartheid development
i. trace the origin of apartheid in South Africa;

ii. give reasons for the rise of Afrikaner nationalism;

iii. evaluate apartheid laws;

iv. relate the internal reactions to apartheid to the Africanstruggle for majority rule;

v. relate the contributions of African states and internationalorganizations to the fight against apartheid;

vi. identify the steps taken towards the dismantling of apartheidin South Africa

vii. assess the post-apartheid development in South Africa.

5. Problems of Nation-building in Africa

a. Political and economic challenges andconstraints

b. Physical and environmental challenges

c. Ethnic and religious pluralism

d. Military intervention and politicalinstability.

e. Neo-colonialism and under -development.

f. Boundary disputes and threat to Africanunity

g. Civil wars and the refugee problem.
i. examine the political and economic problems faced byAfrican countries in nation-building;

ii. assess the effects of natural disasters on Africa

iii. determine the role of ethnic and religious problems in Africa;

iv. examine the role of the military in African politics;

v. examine the role of neo-colonialism in Africa;

vi. assess the problems of boundary disputes;

vii. establish the relationship between civil wars and refugeeproblems in Africa

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A. RECOMMENDED TEXTS

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