The aim of the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) syllabus in Geography is toprepare the candidates for the Board’s examination. It is designed to test their achievement of thecourse objectives, which are to:

1. handle and interpret topographical maps, photographs, statistical data and diagrams and basicfield survey;
2. demonstrate knowledge of man’s physical and human environment and how man lives andearns a living on earth surface with special reference to Nigeria and Africa;
3. show understanding of the interrelationship between man and his environment;
4. apply geographical concepts, skills and principles to solving problems;
5. understand field work techniques and the study of a local area in the field.


OBJECTIVES, Candidates should be able to:

A. Maps
A i. define and identify different types and usesof maps

B. Scale and measurement distances, areasreduction and enlargement, directions,bearings and gradients with reference totopographical maps.
Bi. apply the different types of scale todistances and area measurement;

ii. apply the knowledge of scale to gradients,map reduction and enlargement;

C. Map reading and interpretation;drawing of cross profiles, recognition ofintervisibility, recognition anddescription of physical and humanfeatures and relationship as depicted ontopographical maps.
Ci. illustrate the relief of an area through profiledrawing;

ii. interpret physical and human features fromtopographical maps.

D. Interpretation of statistical data; mapsand diagrams
D i. Compute quantitative information fromstatistical data, diagrams and maps,

ii. interpret statistical data, diagrams and maps.

E. Elementary Surveying; chain andprismatic, open and close traverse,procedure, problems, advantagesand disadvantages.
Ei. analyse the principle and procedure of eachtechnique;

ii. compare the advantages of the twotechniques.

F. Geographic Information System (GIS):components, techniques, datasources, applications
F i. Understand GIS and its uses.

ii. Understand the computer system of datacapturing and analysis

iii. Express locations through the use of latitudes,longitudes, zipcodes etc.

iv. Understand land surveying, remote sensing,map digitizing, map scanning as sources ofdata.

v. Explain areas of use: Defense, Agriculture,Rural Development etc.

vi. Identify problems with GIS in Nigeria.
OBJECTIVES, Candidates should be able to:

A The earth as a planet

i. The earth in the solar system,rotation and revolution;

ii. The shape and size of the earth

iii. Latitudes and distances, longitudesand time;
Ai. identify the relative positions of the planetsin the solar system;

ii. relate the effects of the rotation to therevolution of the earth;

iii. provide proof for the shape and size of theearth;

iv. differentiate between latitudes andlongitudes;

v. relate lines of latitude to calculation ofdistance;

vi relate lines of longitude to calculation oftime;

B The Earth Crust

i. The structure of the earth (internaland external) Relationships among thefour spheres.

ii. Rocks: Types, characteristics, modes offormation and uses

iii. Earth’s movement: Tectonic forces

iv. Major Landforms: Mountains, Plateau,Plains, Coastal landforms, karsttopography and desert landforms
B i. compare the internal and externalcomponents of the earth.

ii. understand the existing relationship amongatmosphere, biosphere in terms of energy balance and water cycle.

iii. differentiate between major types of rocksand their characteristics;

iv. analyse the processes of formation and theresultant features;

v. indicate the uses of rocks.

vi. differentiate between tensional andcompressional forces and the resultantlandforms.

vii. identify and describe the major landforms.

C. Volcanism and Earthquakes

i. landforms associated with volcanicactivities

ii. landforms of Igneous Rocks

iii. origin and types of Volcanoes

iv. some volcanic eruptions and earthquakes.
C i. explain the processes of volcanic eruptions andearthquakes

ii. describe the different landforms associated withboth volcanic eruptions and earthquakes.

iii. give examples of major volcanic eruptions andearthquakes in the world.

D. Denudation processes in the tropics

i. weathering

ii. erosion

iii. mass movement

iv. deposition
D i. identify the agents of denudation

ii. associate landforms with each process andagent.

E. Water Bodies

i. Oceans and seas (world distribution,salinity and uses)

ii. Ocean currents – types, distribution,causes and effects;

iii. Lakes – types, distribution and uses.

iv. Rivers: Action of running water.
E i. locate oceans and seas on the globe;

ii. examine the characteristics and uses ofoceans and seas;

iii. classify the types of ocean currents;

iv. account for the distribution of oceancurrents;

v. evaluate the causes and effects of oceancurrents;

vi. identify the types and location of lakes;

vii. indicate the characteristics and uses of lakes

viii. identify the landforms of the different stagesof a river course.

F. Weather and Climate

i. Concept of weather and climate

ii. Elements of weather and climate

iii. Factors controlling weather and climate(pressure, air mass, altitude, continentalityand winds)

iv. Classification of climate (Greek andKoppen).

v. Major climate types (Koppen), theircharacteristics and distribution.

vi. Measuring and recording weatherparameters and instruments used.

vii. The basic science of climate change.
F i. differentiate between weather and climate;

ii. differentiate between the elements ofweather and climate;

iii. isolate the factors controlling weather andclimate;

iv. compare Koppen’s and Greek’s classifications

v. identify the major types of climateto Koppen;

vii. relate the weather instruments to their uses.

viii. define climate change

ix. understand the causes of climate change

x. understand the effects and remedies ofclimate change.

G Vegetation

i. Factors controlling growth of plants

ii. The concept of vegetation e.g. plantcommunities and succession

iii. Major types of vegetation, theircharacteristics and distribution,

iv. Impact of human activities on vegetation.
G i.. trace the factors controlling the growthof plants;

ii. analyse the process of vegetationdevelopment;

iii. identify the types, their characteristicsand distribution;

iv. assess the impact of human activitieson vegetation;

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H Soils

i. Definition and properties

ii. Factors and processes of formation

iii. Soil profiles

iv. Major tropical types, theircharacteristics, distribution and uses;

v. Impact of human activities on soils.
H i. classify soils and their properties;

ii. isolate the factors of formation;

iii. differentiate between the different typesof soil horizons and their characteristics;

iv. compare the major tropical soil types anduses of soils;

v. account for the distribution and uses ofsoils;

vi. assess the impact of human activitieson soils.

I Environmental Resources;

i. Types of resources (atmospheric, land,soil, Vegetation and minerals)

ii. The concept of renewable and nonrenewableresources;
I i. interpret the concept of environmentalresources;

ii. relate environmental resources to theiruses;

iii. differentiate between the concepts ofrenewable and non-renewable resources.

J Environmental interaction:

i. Land ecosystem

ii. Environmental balance and humaninteraction
J i. identify the components of landecosystem;

ii. establish the interrelationship within theecosystem;

iii. interpret the concept of environmentalbalance;

iv. analyse the effects of human activities onland ecosystem.

K Environmental hazards:

i. Natural hazards (droughts, earthquakes,volcanic eruptions, flooding)

ii. Man-induced (soil erosion, deforestation,pollution, flooding and desertification)

iii. Effects, prevention and control ofhazards.
K i. identify the natural hazards and theircauses;

ii. relate the human-induced hazards to theircauses;

iii. locate the major areas where they arecommon and their effects;

iv. recommend possible methods ofprevention and control.

L Environmental Conservation

L i. explain with examples environmentalconservation

ii. discuss the different methods ofenvironmental conservation.

iii. explain the need/importance ofenvironmental conservation
OBJECTIVES, Candidates should be able to:

A. Population

i. World population with particularreference to the Amazon Basin, N.E.U.S.A., India, Japan and the WestCoast of Southern Africa.

ii. Characteristics – birth and death rates,ages/sex structure.

iii. Factors and patterns of populationdistribution;

iv. Factors and problems of populationgrowth.
A i. Define different concepts of population;

ii. identify the characteristics ofpopulation (growth rates and structure);

iii. determine the factors and the patterns ofpopulation distribution;

iv. identify the factors and problems ofpopulation growth;

v. relate the types of migration to theircauses and effects;

vi. account for the ways population constitutea resource.

B Settlement with particular reference to Western Europe, the USA, Middle East and West Africa:

i. Types and patterns: rural and urban,dispersed, nucleated and linear;

ii. Rural settlement: classification, factorsof growth and functions;

iii. Urban settlement – classification, factorsof growth and functions.

iv. Problems of urban centres

v. Interrelationship between rural and urbansettlements.
B i. differentiate between types ofsettlements; (rural and urban)

ii. classify the patterns and functions ofrural settlements;

iii. classify the patterns and functions ofurban settlements;

iv. identify the problems of urban centres;

v. establish the interrelationship between ruraland urban settlements;

C Selected economic activities

i. Types of economic activities: primary,secondary, tertiary and quartnary;

ii. Agriculture: types, system, factors andproblems

iii. Manufacturing industries, types,locational factors, distribution and socioeconomicimportance and problems of industrialization in tropical Africa.

iv. Transportation and Communication types,roles in economic development andcommunication in tropical Africa.

v. World trade-factors and pattern ofworld trade, major commodities (origin,routes and destinations).

vi. Tourism: definition, importance,location, problems and solutions.
C i. identify the types of economic activities;

ii. differentiate between the types ofeconomic activities;

iii. assess Agriculture as an economicactivity;

iv. compare the types of manufacturingindustries;

v. identify the factors of industrial location;

vi. examine the socio-economic importanceof manufacturing industries;

vii. give reasons for the problems ofindustrialization in tropical Africa;

viii. differentiate between the types andmeans of transportation andcommunication;

ix. assess the economic importance oftransport;

x. give reasons for the problems oftransportation in tropical Africa;

xi. relate the factors to the pattern of worldtrade.

xii. classify the major commodities of tradein terms of their origins, routes anddestination.

xiii. analyse tourism as an economic activity.
OBJECTIVES, Candidates should be able to:

A Broad outline of Nigeria

i. Location, position, size, political division(states) and peoples;

ii Physical settings: geology, relief,landform, climate and drainage,vegetation and soils;

iii Population: size, distribution, migration,(types, problems and effects);

iv Natural Resources: types (minerals, soils,water, vegetation, etc) distribution, usesand conservation.
A i. describe the location, size and politicaldivisions of Nigeria;

ii. identify the ethnic groups and theirdistributions;

iii. relate the components of physical settings totheir effects on human activities;

iv. account for the pattern of populationdistribution;

v. examine the types of migration, theirproblems and effects;

vi. identify the types of natural resourcesand their distribution;

vii. indicate their uses and conservation;

B. Economic and Human Geography:

i. Agricultural Systems: the major cropsproduced, problems of agriculturaldevelopment in Nigeria.

ii. Manufacturing Industries: factors oflocation, types of products, marketingand problems associated withmanufacturing;

iii. Transportation and Communication:modes of transportation andcommunication and their relativeadvantages and disadvantages;

iv. Trade: Regional and InternationalTrade, advantages and disadvantages;

v. Tourism: types, importance, problemsand solutions.
B i. compare the farming systems practised inNigeria;

ii. identify the crops produced and the problemsencountered;

iii. identify the types and location of the majormanufacturing industries;

iv. determine the factors of industrial locationand the problems associated with theindustries;

v. establish the relationship betweentransport and communication;

vi. relate the modes of transportation andcommunication to their relativeadvantages and disadvantages;

vii. classify the major commodities ofregional and international trade;

viii. identify reasons for tourism and touristcentres;

ix. account for the problems and solutions


i. Meaning and objectives

ii. Member states

iii. Advantages and benefits

iv. Disadvantages, problems and solutions.
C i. State the meaning, purpose and objectives;

ii. identify and locate the member countries;

iii. evaluate the prospects and problems of theorganization.

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Adeleke, B.O. Areola .O. 2002 and Leong, G.C. Certificate Physical and Human Geography for Senior SecondarySchool (West African Edition), Ibadan: Oxford.

Bradshaw, M. et al (2004) Contemporary World Regional Geography, New York: McGraw Hill.

Bunet, R.B and Okunrotifa, P.O.(1999) General Geography in Diagrams for West Africa, China: Longman.

Collins New Secondary Atlas, Macmillan.

Fellman, D. et al (2005) Introduction to Geography (Seventh Edition) New York: McGraw Hill.

Getis, A. et al (2004) Introduction to Geography (Ninth Edition) New York: McGraw Hill.

Iloeje, N. P(1999) A New Geography of West Africa, Hong Kong: Longman.

Iloeje, N.P(1982) A New Geography of Nigeria (New Education), Hong Kong: London.

Nimako, D.A. (2000) Map Reading of West Africa, Essex: Longman.

Okunrotifa, P.O. and Michael S. (2000) A Regional Geography of Africa (New Edition), Essex: London.

Udo, R.K(1970) Geographical Regions of Nigeria, London: Longman.Waugh, D. (1995) Geography an Integrated Approach (Second Edition), China: Nelson.

Adegoke, M.A (2013), A Comprehensive Text on Physical, Human and Regional Geography.

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