The aim of the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) syllabus in Commerce is toprepare the candidates for the Board’s examination. It is designed to test their understanding ofthe course objectives, which are to:

(1) acquire the basic knowledge of Commerce;
(2) examine the relationship between Commerce and other related fields;
(3) apply the principles of Commerce in the Nigerian economy and
(4) appreciate dynamic and positive changes in commercial activities.


OBJECTIVES, Candidates should be able to:

1. Commerce

(i) Meaning and scope

(ii) Characteristics

(iii) Functions
Candidates should be able to:

(i) differentiate between Commerce and otherrelated subjects;

(ii) describe the characteristics of Commerce;

(iii) Identify the functions of Commerce.

2. Occupation

(i) Meaning and importance

(ii) Types (industrial, commercial andservices)

(iii) Factors that determine choice ofoccupation
Candidates should be able to:

(i) State the importance of occupation;

(ii) Compare the different types of occupation;

(iii) Identify the factors determining the choiceof occupation.

3. Production

(i) Factors, characteristics and rewards(land, labour, capital and entrepreneur)

(ii) Division of Labour and specialization

(iii) Types (primary, secondary andtertiary)
Candidates should be able to:

(i) identify the Factors of Production and theirrewards;

(ii) distinguish between Division of Labourand Specialization;

(iii) classify the types of production.

4. Trade

a. Home Trade(i) Retail trade:

- Types of retailers

- Functions of retailers

- Factors to be considered in settingup retail trade

- Trends in retailing (branding, self -service, vending machines, the useof luncheon, fuel vouchers, etc)

- Advantages and disadvantages ofretailers

(ii) Wholesale trade:

- Types of wholesalers (merchant,agent, general, etc)

- Functions of wholesalers

- Advantages and disadvantages ofwholesalers

b. Foreign trade

(i) Basic issues in foreign trade (balance oftrade, balance of payments and countertrade)

(ii) Procedures and documents used inexport, import and entrepôt trade

(iii) Barriers to international trade(iv) Role of Customs and Excise Authority,Ports Authority, etc in foreign trade
Candidates should be able to:

(i) compare the various types of retailers;

(ii) identify the functions of retailers;

(iii) highlight the factors in setting up retailtrade;

(iv) classify modern retailing practices;

(v) identify the advantages and disadvantagesof retail business;

(vi) classify the types of wholesalers;

(vii) discuss the functions of wholesalers;

(viii) outline the merits and demerits of themiddleman;

(ix) analyse the basic issues in foreign trade;

(x) explain the procedures and documents usedin foreign trade;

(xi) identify the barriers to international trade;

(xii) appraise the role of government agencies inforeign trade.

5. Purchase and Sale of Goods

(i) Procedure and documentation(enquiry, quotation, order, invoice,proforma invoice, statement ofaccounts, indent, consular invoice, billof lading, certificate of origin,consignment note, etc)

(ii) Terms of trade (trade discount,quantity discount, cash discount,warranties, C.O.D., C.I.F., F.O.B., andE.O.E.etc)

(iii) Terms of paymentsa. Cash - Legal tender

b. Credit

- Types and functions

- Merits and demerits
Candidates should be able to:

(i) examine the procedures and documentsused in the purchase and sale of goods;

(ii) determine the terms of trade;

(iii) distinguish between cash and credit formsof payment;

(iv) identify the types of credit;

(v) analyse the merits and demerits of credittransactions.

6. Aids-to-trade

a. Advertising:

(i) Types and media

(ii) Advantages and disadvantages

b. Banking:

(i) Types of bank

(ii) Services

(iii) Challenges

c. Communication:

(i) Process and procedure

(ii) Types

(iii) Trends

(iv) Merits and demerits

(v) Barriers

d. Insurance:

(i) Types

(ii) Principles

(iii) Terms

(iv) Importance

e. Tourism:

(i) Importance

(ii) Agencies that promote tourism inNigeria

(iii) Challenges

f. Transportation:

(i) Mode

(ii) Importance

(iii) Advantages and disadvantages

g. Warehousing:

(i) Importance

(ii) Types and functions

(iii) Factors to be considered in sitinga warehouse
Candidates should be able to:

(i) identify the different types ofadvertising and its media;

(ii) analyse the advantages and disadvantagesof advertising;

(iii) categorize the different types of bank;

(iv) assess the services rendered by banks;

(v) identify the challenges facing banks;

(vi) assess the different stages in thecommunication process;

(vii) analyse the types of communication;

(viii) appraise the contributions of courierservices, GSM, etc., to businesses;

(ix) state the merits and demerits ofcommunication;

(x) outline the barriers to communication

(xi) describe the types of insurance;

(xii) apply the principles of insurance to lifesituations;

(xiii) explain the terms in insurance;

(xiv) state the importance of insurance;

(xv) examine the importance of tourism;

(xvi) identify the agencies that promote tourismin Nigeria;

(xvii) analyse the challenges facing tourism inNigeria;

(xviii) appraise the relevance of the variousmodes of transportation;

(xix) list the importance of transportation;

(xx) discuss the advantages and disadvantagesof transportation;

(xxi) highlight the importance of warehousing;

(xxii) appraise the contributions of warehouses tobusinesses.

(xxiii) evaluate the factors that determine thesiting of warehouses.

7. Business Units

(i) Forms and features (SoleProprietorship, Partnership, LimitedLiability Companies, PublicCorporations, Cooperative Societies,etc.)

(ii) Registration of businesses

(iii) Business Mergers

(iv) Determination of choice of businessunits

(v) Dissolution and liquidation

(vi) Merits and demerits
Candidates should be able to:

(i) identify the forms and features of businessunits;

(ii) analyse the procedures for registeringbusinesses;

(iii) appraise the different forms of businessmergers and the reasons for merging;

(iv) examine the factors which determine thechoice of business units;

(v) differentiate between dissolution andliquidation of business;

(vi) state the merits and demerits of businessunits.

8. Financing Business

(i) Sources of finance (personal savings,sale of shares and bonds, loans,debentures, mortgage, bank overdraft,ploughing back of profit, creditpurchase, leasing, etc.)

(ii) Types of capital (share capital, capitalowned, authorized capital, issuedcapital, called-up capital, paid-upcapital, liquid capital, working capitaland owners’ equity)

(iii) Calculation of forms of capital, profits(gross and net) and turnover

(iv) Problems of sourcing finance

(v) The role of Bureau de change in aneconomy
Candidates should be able to:

(i) identify the various ways of financing abusiness;

(ii) discuss the different types of capital

(iii) compute the different forms of capital,profits and turnover;

(iv) appraise the problems associated withsourcing finances for business;

(v) assess the role of Bureau de change in aneconomy.

9. Trade Associations

(i) Objectives and functions of trade andmanufacturer’s associations (CocoaFarmers’ Association, Garri Sellers’Association, Poultry Farmers’Association, etc.)

(ii) Objectives and functions of Chambersof Commerce.
Candidates should be able to:

(i) discuss the objectives and functions oftrade and manufacturer’s associations;

(ii) list the objectives and functions ofChambers of Commerce.

10. Money

(i) Evolution

(ii) Forms and qualities

(iii) Functions
Candidates should be able to:

(i) discuss the origin of money;

(ii) analyse the forms and qualities of money;

(iii) appraise the functions of money.

11. Stock Exchange

(i) Importance and functions

(ii) Types of securities (stocks, shares,bonds, debentures, etc)

(iii) Procedure of transactions andspeculations

(iv) Second-Tier Securities Market, (listingrequirements, types of companies forthe market, advantages and operatingregulations of the market.)
Candidates should be able to:

(i) state the importance and functions of theStock Exchange;

(ii) identify the different securities traded onthe Stock Exchange;

(iii) analyse the procedure of transactions andspeculations on the Stock Exchange;

(iv) appraise the advantages and operatingregulations of the market.

We provide educational resources/materials, curriculum guide, syllabus, scheme of work, lesson note & plan, waec, jamb, O-level & advance level GCE lessons/tutorial classes, on various topics, subjects, career, disciplines & department etc. for all the Class of Learners

12. Elements of Business Management

(i) Functions (planning, organizing,staffing, coordinating, motivating,communicating, controlling etc.)

(ii) Principles (span of control, unity ofcommand, delegation of authority,etc.)

(iii) Organizational structure (line, line andstaff, functional, matrix andcommittee)

(iv) Functional areas of business(production, marketing, finance andpersonnel)

(v) Business resources (man, money,materials, machines andopportunities/goodwill)
Candidates should be able to:

(i) appraise the functions of management;

(ii) analyse the principles of management;

(iii) identify organizational structures;

(iv) assess the functional areas of business;

(v) examine the business resources.

13. Elements of Marketing

(i) Importance and Functions

(ii) The marketing concept (consumerorientation, customer satisfaction,integrated marketing, etc)

(iii) Marketing mix (product, price, placeand promotion)

(iv) Market Segmentation

(v) Public relations and Customer Service.
Candidates should be able to:

(i) highlight the importance and functions ofmarketing;

(ii) discuss the marketing concept;

(iii) assess the elements of marketing mix;

(iv) explain market segmentation;

(v) examine public relations and customerservice.

14. Legal Aspects of Business

(i) Meaning and validity of a simplecontract

(ii) Agency, Sale of Goods Act and HirePurchase Act

(iii) Contract of employment

(iv) Government regulations of business(registration of business, patents,trademarks, copyrights, etc)

(v) Consumer protection (Governmentlegislation, Standards OrganizationTrade Descriptions Act, ConsumerProtection Council, NAFDAC,NDLEA, Customs and Excise, etc.)

(vi) Regulatory agencies
Candidates should be able to:

(i) analyse the elements and validity of asimple contract;

(ii) examine Agency, Sale of Goods Act andHire Purchase Act;

(iii) assess the rights and obligations ofemployers and employees;

(iv) distinguish between patents, trademarksand copyrights;

(v) identify the functions of consumerism;

(vi) assess the relevance of regulatory agenciesand acts in the provision of safe goods anddrugs.

15.Information and Communication Technology(ICT)

a. Computer:

(i) Appreciation and application

(ii) Types and functions

(iii) Merits and demerits

(iv) Challenges

b. Terms (Internet, Intranet, browsing,password, e-mail, google, yahoo, search,Local Area Network, etc.)

c. Activities:

(i) e-commerce

(ii) e-banking

(iii) e-business
Candidates should be able to:

(i) discuss computer appreciation andapplication;

(ii) enumerate the types and functions ofcomputer;

(iii) analyse the merits and demerits of ICT;

(iv) appraise the challenges of using thecomputer;

(v) identify the different terms used in ICT;

(vi) evaluate the trends in ICT.

16. Business Environment and SocialResponsibility

(i) Legal, political, economic, social,cultural, technological environments,etc

(ii) Safe products, philanthropic andsocietal consideration

(iii) Types and implication of pollution(water, air, land, etc.)
Candidates should be able to:

(i) discuss the types of business environment;

(ii) assess the role of social environment in theprovision of safe products;

(iii) identify the different types of pollution andtheir implications on businesses.


Anderson, D. J. (1978) Commerce for West Africa, London: Macmillan.

Ahukannah, L. I. et al (1992) Commerce for Secondary SchoolsOnitsha: Africana – First Publishers.

Asaolu, A. and Igwe, P. M. (2005) New Syllabus Commerce for Secondary SchoolsBooks 1 – 3 (Second Edition) Ibadan: Evans.

Babatunde, A. H. (1999) Handbook on Commerce for Schools and Colleges,(First Edition), Global Publications.

Eriki, P. O. (1998) Working with Computer, Benin: Bofic Publishers.

French, C. S. (2000) Computer Science, (Fifth Edition), Britain: Ashford.

Ibru, G. M. (2004) Nigeria: The Promise of Tourism, Lagos: G.S.L. Publishing Limited.

Igwe, P. M. et al (2004) Countdown to WASSCE/SSCE/NECO/JME Commerce, Ibadan: Evans.

James, A. F. et al (1996) Management (Sixth Edition), New Delhi: Prentice Hall).

Nwachukwu, C. C. (1999) Management Theory and Practice, Onitsha: Africana – First Publishers.

Odedokun, M. O. et al (1999) Commerce for Senior Secondary Schools, Books 1 – 3, Lagos: Longman.

Odoom, F. F. (1998) Commerce for Senior Secondary Schools, Books 1 – 3, Ibadan: Onibonoje.

Onifade, A. (2001) Management: Office Business Education, Abeokuta: KAPPCO.

Onifade, A. (2002) The Computer for Word Processing and Internet, Abeokuta: KAPPCO.

Onu, A. J. C. (2000) Marketing Today, Abuja: Precious Treasures Ltd.

Pallister, J. and Isaacs, A. (eds) (2002) A Dictionary of Business (Third Edition), Oxford:Oxford University Press.

Ubaka, O. A., (2012), Commerce Simplifiedfor SSS 1 – 3, WAEC, NECO, JAMB & NABTEB EXAMS,Garki, Abuja: Andyson Millennium Concepts Ltd.

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