The aim of the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) syllabus in Chemistry is toprepare the candidates for the Board’s examination. It is designed to test their achievement of thecourse objectives, which are to:

(i) understand the basic principles and concepts in chemistry;

(ii) interpret scientific data relating to chemistry;

(iii) deduce the relationships between chemistry and other sciences;

(iv) apply the knowledge of chemistry to industry and everyday life.


OBJECTIVES, Candidates should be able to:

1. Separation of mixtures andpurification of chemicalsubstances

(a) Pure and impure substances

(b) Boiling and melting points

(c) Elements, compounds and mixtures

(d) Chemical and physical changes

(e) Separation processes:

Evaporation, simple and fractional distillation,sublimation, filtration, crystallization, paperand column chromatography, simple andfractional crystallization, magnetization,decantation.
Candidates should be able to:

(i) distinguish between pure and impuresubstances;

(ii) use boiling and melting points as criteria forpurity of chemical substances;

(iii) distinguish between elements, compounds andmixtures;

(iv) differentiate between chemical and physicalchanges;

(v) identify the properties of the components of amixture;

(vi) specify the principle involved in each separationmethod;

(vii) apply the basic principle of separationprocesses in everyday life.

2. Chemical combination

Stoichiometry, laws of definite and multipleproportions, law of conservation of matter,Gay Lussac’s law of combining volumes,Avogadro’s law; chemical symbols, formulae,equations and their uses, relative atomic massbased on 12C=12, the mole concept andAvogadro’s number.
Candidates should be able to:

(i) perform simple calculations involving formulae,equations/chemical composition and the moleconcept;

(ii) deduce the chemical laws from givenexpressions/statements/data;

(iii) interpret graphical representations relatedto these laws;

(iv) deduce the stoichiometry of chemical reactions.

3. Kinetic theory of matter and Gas Laws

(a) An outline of the kinetic theory of matter;

(i) melting,

(ii) vapourization

(iii) boiling

(iv) freezing

(v) condensation

in terms of molecular motion and Brownianmovement.

(b)(i) The laws of Boyle, Charles, Graham andDalton (law of partial pressure); combined gaslaw, molar volume and atomicity of gases.

(ii) The ideal gas equation (PV = nRT).

(iii) The relationship between vapour density ofgases and the relative molecular mass.
Candidates should be able to:

(i) apply the theory to distinguish between solids,liquids and gases;

(ii) deduce reasons for change of state;

(iii) draw inferences based on molecular motion;

(iv) deduce gas laws from givenexpressions/statements;

(v) interpret graphical representations related tothese laws;

(vi) perform simple calculations based on theselaws, equations and relationships.

4. Atomic structure and bonding

(a) (i)The concept of atoms, molecules and ions,the works of Dalton, Millikan, Rutherford,Moseley, Thompson and Bohr.

(ii) Atomic structure, electron configuration,atomic number, mass number and isotopes;specific examples should be drawn fromelements of atomic number 1 to 20.

(iii) Shapes of s and p orbitals.

(b) The periodic table and periodicity ofelements, presentation of the periodic tablewith a view to recognizing families ofelements e.g. alkali metals, halogens, thenoble gases and transition metals. Thevariation of the following properties:ionization energy, ionic radii, electronaffinity and electronegativity.

(c) Chemical bonding.

Electrovalency and covalency, the electronconfiguration of elements and their tendencyto attain the noble gas structure.

Hydrogenbonding and metallic bonding as specialtypes of electrovalency and covalencyrespectively;

coordinate bond as a typeof covalent bond as illustrated by complexeslike [Fe(CN)6]3-,



and [Ag(NH3)2]+;

van der Waals’ forces should be mentioned as aspecial type of bonding forces.

(d) Shapes of simple molecules: linear ((H2, O2,Cl2, HCl and CO2),

non-linear (H2O) andtetrahedral; (CH4) and pyramidal (NH3).

(e) Nuclear Chemistry:

(i) Radioactivity – Types and properties ofradiations

(ii) Nuclear reactions. Simple equations,uses and applications of natural andartificial radioactivity.
Candidates should be able to:

(i) distinguish between atoms, molecules and ions;

(ii) identify the contributions of these scientists tothe development of the atomic structure;

(iii) deduce the number of protons, neutrons andelectrons from atomic and mass numbers ofan atom;

(iv) apply the rules guiding the arrangement ofelectrons in an atom;

(v) identify common elements exhibiting isotopy;

(vi) relate isotopy to mass number;

(vii) perform simple calculations relating to isotopy;

(viii) differentiate between the shapes of the orbitals;

(ix) determine the number of electrons in s andp atomic orbitals;

(x) relate atomic number to the position of anelement on the periodic table;

(xi) relate properties of groups of elements on theperiodic table;

(xii) identify reasons for variation in propertiesacross the period and down the groups.

(xiii) differentiate between the different typesof bonding.

(xiv) deduce bond types based on electronconfigurations;

(xv) relate the nature of bonding to propertiesof compounds;

(xvi) differentiate between the various shapesof molecules;

(xvii) distinguish between ordinary chemicalreaction and nuclear reaction;

(xviii) differentiate between natural andartificial radioactivity;

(xix) compare the properties of the differenttypes of nuclear radiations;

(xx) compute simple calculations on thehalf-life of a radioactive material;

(xxi) balance simple nuclear equation;

(xxii) identify the various applications ofradioactivity.

5. Air

(a) The natural gaseous constituents andtheir proportion in the air.

– nitrogen, oxygen, water vapour, carbon(IV) oxide and the noble gases (argonand neon).

(b) Air as a mixture and some uses of thenoble gas.
Candidates should be able to:(i) deduce reason (s) for the existence ofair as a mixture;

(ii) identify the principle involved in theseparation of air components;

(iii) deduce reasons for the variation in thecomposition of air in the environment;

(iv) specify the uses of some of theconstituents of air.

6. Water

(a) Water as a product of the combustionof hydrogen and its composition byvolume.

(b) Water as a solvent, atmospheric gasesdissolved in water and their biologicalsignificance.

(c) Hard and soft water:Temporary and permanenthardness and methods of softeninghard water.

(d) Treatment of water for town supply.

(e) Water of crystallization, efflorescence,deliquescence and hygroscopy. Examplesof the substances exhibiting theseproperties and their uses.
Candidates should be able to:(i) identify the various uses of water;

(ii) identify the effects of dissolved atmosphericgases in water;

(iii) distinguish between the propertiesof hard andsoft water;

(iv) determine the causes of hardness;

(v) identify methods of removal of hardness;

(vi) describe the processes involved in thetreatment of water for town supply;

(vii) distinguish between these phenomena;

(viii) identify the various compounds that exhibitthese phenomena.

7. Solubility

(a) Unsaturated, saturated andsupersaturated solutions. Solubilitycurves and simple deductions fromthem, (solubility defined in terms ofmole per dm3) and simplecalculations.

(b) Solvents for fats, oil and paintsand the use of such solventsfor the removal of stains.

(c) False solution (Suspensions and colloids):Properties and examples.

Harmattan haze and water paints as examplesof suspensions and fog, milk, aerosol spray,emulsion paints and rubber solution asexamples of colloids.
Candidates should be able to:

(i) distinguish between the different types ofsolutions;

(ii) interpret solubility curves;

(iii) calculate the amount of solute that candissolve in a given amount of solvent at agiven temperature;

(iv) deduce that solubility is temperature-dependent;

(v) relate nature of solvents to their uses;

(vi) differentiate among true solution,suspension and colloids;

(vii) compare the properties of a true solutionand a ‘false’ solution.

(viii) provide typical examples of suspensionsand colloids.

8. Environmental Pollution

(a) Sources and effects of pollutants.

(b) Air pollution:

Examples of air pollutants such asH2S, CO, SO2, oxides of nitrogen,chlorofluorocarbons and dust.

(c) Water pollutionSewage and oil pollution should beknown.

(d) Soil pollution:

Oil spillage, biodegradable andnon-biodegradable pollutants.
Candidates should be able to:

(i) identify the different types of pollution andpollutants;

(ii) specify different sources of pollutants

(iii) classify pollutants as biodegradable andnon-biodegradable;

(iv) specify the effects of pollution on theenvironment;

(v) identify measures for control ofenvironmental pollution.

9. Acids, bases and salts

(a) General characteristics and properties ofacids, bases and salts. Acids/base indicators,basicity of acids; normal, acidic, basic anddouble salts. An acid defined as a substancewhose aqueous solution furnishes H3O+ionsor as a proton donor. Ethanoic, citric andtartaric acids as examples of naturallyoccurring organic acids, alums as examplesof double salts, preparation of salts byneutralization, precipitation and action ofacids on metals. Oxides andtrioxocarbonate (IV) salts(b) Qualitative comparison of theconductance of molar solutions ofstrong and weak acids and bases,relationship between conductance andamount of ions present.(c) pH and pOH scale; Simple calculations(d) Acid/base titrations.(e) Hydrolysis of salts: PrincipleSimple examples such asNH4Cl, AlCl3Cl, Na2CO3and CH3COONa
Candidates should be able to:(i) distinguish between the properties ofacids and bases;

(ii) identify the different types of acidsand bases;

(iii) determine the basicity of acids;

(iv) differentiate between acidity andalkalinity using acid/base indicators;(v) identify the various methods ofpreparation of salts;

(vi) classify different types of salts;

(vii) relate degree of dissociation to strengthof acids and bases;

(viii) relate degree of dissociation toconductance;

(ix) perform simple calculations on pH and pOH;

(x) identify the appropriate acid-baseindicator;

(xi) interpret graphical representation oftitration curves;

(xii) perform simple calculations based onthe mole concept;

(xiii) balance equations for the hydrolysisof salts;

(xiv) deduce the properties (acidic, basic,neutral) of the resultant solution.

10. Oxidation and reduction

(a) Oxidation in terms of the addition ofoxygen or removal of hydrogen.

(b) Reduction as removal of oxygen oraddition of hydrogen.

(c) Oxidation and reduction in terms ofelectron transfer.

(d) Use of oxidation numbers.Oxidation and reduction treated as changein oxidation number and use of oxidationnumbers in balancing simple equations.

(e) IUPAC nomenclature of inorganiccompounds using oxidation number.

(f) Tests for oxidizing and reducing agents.
Candidates should be able to:

(i) identify the various forms of expressingoxidation and reduction;

(ii) classify chemical reactions in terms ofoxidation or reduction;

(iii) balance redox reaction equations;

(iv) deduce the oxidation number of chemicalspecies;

(v) compute the number of electron transferin redox reactions;

(vi) identify the name of redox species in a reaction

(vii) distinguish between oxidizing and reducingagents in redox reactions.

(viii) apply oxidation number in naming inorganiccompounds

(ix) relate reagents to their oxidizing and reducingabilities.

11. Electrolysis

(a) Electrolytes and non-electrolytes.Faraday’s laws of electrolysis.(b) (i) Electrolysis of dilute H2SO4SO, aqueousCuSO4, CuC12 solution, dilute andconcentrated NaC1 solutions andfused NaCl

(ii)Factors affecting discharge of ions atthe electrodes.

(c) Uses of electrolysis:

Purification of metals e.g.copper andproduction of elements and compounds(Al, Na, O2, Cl2 and NaOH).

(d) Electrochemical cells:

Redox series (K, Ca,Na, Mg,Al, Zn, Fe, Sn, Pb, H, Cu, Hg, Ag, Au,)half-cell reactions and electrode potentials.(Simple calculations only).

(e) Corrosion as an electrolytic process,cathodic protection of metals,painting, electroplating and coatingwith grease or oil as ways ofpreventing iron from corrosion.
Candidates should be able to:

(i) distinguish between electrolytes and nonelectrolytes;

(ii) perform calculations based on faraday as amole of electrons.

(iii) identify suitable electrodes for differentelectrolytes.

(iv) specify the chemical reactions at theelectrodes;

(v) determine the products at the electrodes;

(vi) identify the factors that affect the productsof electrolysis;

(vii) specify the different areas of application ofelectrolysis;

(viii) identify the various electrochemical cells;

(ix) calculate electrode potentials using halfcellreaction equations;

(x) determine the different areas ofapplication of electrolytic processes;

(xi) identify methods used in protecting metals.

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12. Energy changes

(a) Energy changes(ΔH) accompanying physicaland chemical changes:

dissolution of substances in/orreaction with water e.g. Na, NaOH,K, NH4Cl. Endothermic (+ΔH) andexothermic (-ΔH)reactions.

(b) Entropy as an order-disorderphenomenon:

simple illustrationslike mixing of gases and dissolutionof salts.

(c) Spontaneity of reactions:

ΔG0=0 as a criterion for equilibrium, ΔGgreater or less than zero as a criterion fornon-spontaneity or spontaneity respectively.
Candidates should be able to:

(i) determine the types of heat changes

(ΔH) in physical and chemical processes;

(ii) interpret graphical representations of heatchanges;

(iii) relate the physical state of a substanceto the degree of orderliness;

(iv) determine the conditions for spontaneityof a reaction ;

(v) relate ΔH0, ΔS0 and ΔG0 as the drivingforces for chemical reactions;

(vi) solve simple problems based on therelationships ΔG0= ΔH0 - TΔS0

13. Rates of Chemical Reaction

(a) Elementary treatment of the following factorswhich can change the rate of a chemicalreaction:

(i) Temperature e.g. the reaction between HCland Na2S2O3 or Mg and HCl

(ii) Concentration e.g. the reaction between HCland Na2S2O3, HCl and marble and the iodineclock reaction, for gaseous systems, pressuremay be used as concentration term.

(iii) Surface area e.g. the reactionbetween marble and HCl withmarble in

(i) powdered form

(ii) lumps of the same mass.

(iv) Catalyst e.g. the decompositionof H2O2 or KClO3 in thepresence or absence of MnO2

(b) Reaction rate curves.

(c)Activation energy

Qualitative treatment of Arrhenius’ law andthe collision theory, effect of light on somereactions. e.g. halogenation of alkanes
Candidates should be able to:(i) identify the factors that affect the rates of achemical reaction;

(ii) determine the effects of temperature onthe rate of reactions;

(iii) examine the effect of concentration/pressure onthe rate of a chemical reaction;

(iv) describe how the rate of a chemical reaction isaffected by surface area;

(v) determine the types of catalysts suitable fordifferent reactions and their effects;

(vi) determine ways of moderating these effects inchemical reactions.

(vii) interpret reaction rate curves;

(viii) solve simple problems on the rate of reactions;

(ix) relate the rate of reaction to the kinetic theoryof matter.

(x) examine the significance of activation energy tochemical reactions.

(xi) deduce the value of activation energy(Ea) fromreaction rate curves.

14. Chemical equilibra

Reversible reactions and factors governingthe equilibrium position. Dynamicequilibrium.Le Chatelier’s principle andequilibrium constant. Simple examples toinclude action of steam on iron andN2O4O<----->2NO2.No calculation will be required.
Candidates should be able to:

(i) identify the factors that affect the positionof equilibrium of a chemical reaction;

(ii) predict the effects of each factor on the positionof equilibrium;

(iii) determine the effects of these factors onequilibrium constant.

15. Non-metals and their compounds

(a) Hydrogen: commercial production fromwater gas and cracking of petroleumfractions, laboratory preparation,properties, uses and test for hydrogen.

(b) Halogens: Chlorine as a representativeelement of the halogen. Laboratorypreparation, industrial preparation byelectrolysis, properties and uses, e.g.water sterilization, bleaching,manufacture of HCl, plastics andinsecticides.

Hydrogen chloride and Hydrochloric acid:

Preparation and properties. Chlorides and test forchlorides.

(c) Oxygen and Sulphur

(i) Oxygen:

Laboratory preparation, properties and uses.

Commercial production from liquid air.


Acidic,basic, amphoteric and neutral,trioxygen (ozone) as an allotrope and theimportance of ozone in the atmosphere.

(ii) Sulphur:

Uses and allotropes:

preparation of allotropes is not expected .

Preparation, properties and uses of sulphur(IV)oxide, the reaction of SO2 withalkalis.Trioxosulphate (IV) acid and its salts,the effect of acids on salts of trioxosulphate(IV), Tetraoxosulphate (VI) acid: Commercialpreparation (contact process only), properties asa dilute acid, an oxidizing and a dehydratingagents and uses. Test for SO42-.

Hydrogen sulphide:

Preparation and propertiesas a weak acid, reducing and precipitatingagents. Test for S2-

(d) Nitrogen:

(i) Laboratory preparation

(ii) Production from liquid air

(iii) Ammonia:

Laboratory and industrialpreparations (Haber Process only),properties and uses, ammonium saltsand their uses, oxidation ofammonia to nitrogen (IV)oxide and trioxonitrate (V)acid.

Test for NH4+

(iv) Trioxonitrate (V) acid:

Laboratory preparationfrom ammonia;

properties and uses.

Trioxonitrate (V) saltactionof heat and uses.

Test for NO3-
(v) Oxides of nitrogen:

The nitrogen cycle.

(e) Carbon:

(i) Allotropes: Uses andproperties

(ii) Carbon(IV) oxide,Laboratory preparation, propertiesand uses. Action of heat ontrioxocarbonate(IV) salts and test forCO32-

(iii) Carbon(II) oxide:

Laboratory preparation, propertiesincluding its effect on blood;sources of carbon (II) oxide toinclude charcoal, fire and exhaustfumes.

(iv) Coal:

Different types, productsobtained from destructivedistillation of wood and coal.

(v) Coke:

Gasification and uses.Manufacture of synthesis gas anduses.
Candidates should be able to:

(i) predict reagents for the laboratory andindustrial preparation of these gases andtheir compounds.

(ii) identify the properties of the gases and theircompounds.

(iii) compare the properties of these gases andtheir compounds.

(iv) specify the uses of each gas and itscompounds;

(v) determine the specific test for each gas and itscompounds.

(vi) determine specific tests for Cl-, SO42-, SO32-,S2-,NH4+, NO3-, CO32-, HCO3

(vii) predict the reagents for preparation,properties and uses of HCl(g) and HCl(aq);

(viii) identify the allotropes of oxygen;

(ix) determine the significance of ozone toour environment.

(x) classify the oxides of oxygen and theirproperties

(xi) identify the allotropes of sulphur and theiruses;

(xii) predict the reagents for preparation, propertiesand uses of SO2 and H2S;

(xiii) specify the preparations of H2SO4 and H2SO3,their properties and uses.

(xiv) specify the laboratory and industrialpreparation of NH3;

(xv) identify the properties and uses of NH3;

(xvi) identify reagents for the laboratory

preparation of HNO3, its properties anduses;

(xvii) specify the properties of N2O, NO, NO2 gases.

(xviii) examine the relevance of nitrogen cycleto the environment.

(xix) identify allotropes of carbon;

(xx) predict reagents for the laboratorypreparation of CO2;

(xxi) specify the properties of CO2 and itsuses;

(xxii) determine the reagents for thelaboratory preparation of CO;

(xxiii) predict the effects of CO on human;

(xxiv) identify the different forms of coal:

(xxv) determine their uses;

(xxvi) specify the products of the destructivedistillation of wood and coal;

(xxvii) specify the uses of coke and synthesis gas.

16. Metals and their compounds

(a) General properties of metals

(b) Alkali metals e.g. sodium

(i) Sodium hydroxide:-

Production by electrolysis ofbrine, its action on aluminium, zinc and leadions.

Uses including precipitation ofmetallic hydroxides.

(ii) Sodium trioxocarbonate (IV)and sodium hydrogen trioxocarbonate


Production by Solvay process,properties and uses, e.g.Na2CO3 in the manufacture of glass.

(iii) Sodium chloride: its occurrence insea water and uses, the economicimportance of sea water and therecovery of sodium chloride.

(c) Alkaline-earth metals, e.g. calcium;calcium oxide, calcium hydroxideand calcium trioxocarbonate (IV);

Properties and uses. Preparation ofCalcium oxide from sea shells, thechemical composition of cementand the setting of mortar.

Test for Ca2+.(d) Aluminium

Purification of bauxite, electrolyticextraction,properties and uses ofaluminium and its compounds.

Testfor A13+(e) Tin

Extraction from its ores.

Properties and uses.

(f) Metals of the first transition series.

Characteristic properties:

(i) electron configuration

(ii) oxidation states

(iii) complex ion formation

(iv) formation of coloured ions

(v) catalysis

(g) Iron

Extraction from sulphide and oxideores, properties and uses, different formsof iron and their properties andadvantages of steel over iron.

Test for Fe2+ and Fe3+(h) Copper

Extraction from sulphide and oxide

ores, properties and uses of copper.

Preparation and uses of copper( II )Tetraoxosulphate (VI). Test for Cu2+

(i) Alloy

Steel, stainless steel, brass, bronze,type-metal, duralumin, soft solder,permallory and alnico(constituents anduses only).
Candidates should be able to:

(i) specify the general properties of metals;

(ii) determine the method of extraction suitablefor each metal;

(iii) relate the methods of extraction to theproperties of the metals;

(iv) compare the chemical reactivities of the metals;

(v) specify the uses of the metals;

(vi) determine specific test for metallic ions;

(vii) determine the process for the productionof the compounds of these metals;

(viii) compare the chemical reactivities of thecompounds;

(ix) specify the uses of these compounds;

(x) specify the chemical composition of cement.

(xi) describe the method of purification of bauxite;

(xii) specify the ores of tin;

(xiii) relate the method of extraction to itsproperties;

(xiv) specify the uses of tin;

(xv) identify the general properties of the firsttransition metals;

(xvi) deduce reasons for the specific propertiesof the transition metals;

(xvii) determine the IUPAC names of simpletransition metal complexes

(xviii) determine the suitable method ofextraction of iron;

(xix) specify the properties and uses of iron;

(xx) identify the different forms of iron, theircompositions, properties and uses.

(xxi) identify the appropriate method ofextraction of copper from its compounds;

(xxii) relate the properties of copper and itscompound to their uses.

(xxiii) specify the method for the preparation ofCuSO4;

(xxiv) specify the constituents and uses of thevarious alloys mentioned.

(xxv) compare the properties and uses of alloysto pure metals.

17. Organic Compounds

An introduction to the tetravalency ofcarbon, the general formula, IUPACnomenclature and the determination ofempirical formula of each class of theorganic compounds mentioned below.

(a) Aliphatic hydrocarbons

(i) Alkanes

Homologous series in relationto physical properties,substitution reaction and a fewexamples and uses of halogenatedproducts.


structuralonly (examples on isomerism shouldnot go beyond six carbon atoms).

Petroleum: composition, fractionaldistillation and major products;cracking and reforming,Petrochemicals – starting materials oforganic syntheses, quality of petroland meaning of octane number.

(ii) Alkenes


structural and geometricisomerism, additional andpolymerization reactions, polytheneand synthetic rubber as examples ofproducts of polymerization and its usein vulcanization.

(iii) Alkynes

Ethyne – production from action ofwater on carbides, simple reactions andproperties of ethyne.

(b) Aromatic hydrocarbons e.g. benzene -structure, properties and uses.

(c) Alkanols

Primary, secondary, tertiary – productionof ethanol by fermentation and frompetroleum by-products. Local examplesof fermentation and distillation, e.g.gin from palm wine and other localsources and glycerol as a polyhydricalkanol.

Reactions of OH group – oxidation as adistinguishing test among primary, secondaryand tertiary alkanols (Lucas test).

(d) Alkanals and alkanones.

Chemical test to distinguish betweenalkanals and alkanones.

(e) Alkanoic acids.

Chemical reactions;

neutralization andesterification, ethanedioic (oxalic) acidas an example of a dicarboxylic acidand benzene carboxylic acid as anexample of an aromatic acid.

(f) Alkanoates

Formation from alkanoic acids andalkanols – fats and oils as alkanoates.


Production of soap and margarine fromalkanoates and distinction betweendetergents and soaps.

(g) Amines (Alkanamines) Primary,Secondary,and tertiary

(h) Carbohydrates

Classification – mono-, di- andpolysaccharides; composition, chemical testsfor simple sugars and reaction withconcentrated tetraoxosulphate (VI) acid.

Hydrolysis of complex sugars e.g. cellulosefrom cotton and starch from cassava, the usesof sugar and starch in the production ofalcoholic beverages, pharmaceuticals andtextiles.

(i) Proteins:

Primary structures, hydrolysis and tests(Ninhydrin, Biuret, Millon’s andxanthoproteic)

Enzymes and their functions.

(j) Polymers:

Natural and synthetic rubber;

addition andcondensation polymerization.

Methods of preparation, examples and uses.

Thermoplastic and thermosetting plastics.
Candidates should be able to:

(i) derive the name of organic compounds fromtheir general formulae;

(ii) relate the name of a compound to its structure;

(iii) relate the tetravalency of carbon to its abilityto form chains of compound (catenation);

(iv) classify compounds according to theirfunctional groups;

(v) derive empirical formula and molecularFormula from given data;

(vi) relate structure/functional groups to specificproperties;

(vii) derive various isomeric forms from a givenformula;

(viii) distinguish between the different types ofisomerism;

(ix) classify the various types of hydrocarbons;

(x) distinguish each class of hydrocarbons by theirproperties;

(xi) specify the uses of various hydrocarbons;

(xii) identify crude oil as a complex mixtureof hydrocarbons;

(xiii) relate the fractions of hydrocarbons to theirproperties and uses;

(xiv) relate transformation processes to qualityimprovement of the fractions;

(xv) distinguish between various polymerizationprocesses;

(xvi) specify the process involved in vulcanization;

(xvii) specify chemical test for terminal alkynes

(xviii) distinguish between aliphatic and aromatichydrocarbons;

(xix) relate the properties of benzene to its structure

(xx) compare the various classes of alkanols;

(xxi) determine the processes involved in ethanolproduction;

(xxii) examine the importance of ethanol as analternative energy provider;

(xxiii) distinguish the various classes of alkanols;

(xxiv) differentiate between alkanals and alkanones;

(xxv) compare the various types of alkanoic acids;

(xxvi) identify natural sources of alkanoates;

(xxvii) specify the methods for the production ofsoap, detergent and margarine.

(xxviii) distinguish between detergent and soap;

(xxix) compare the various classes of alkanamine;

(xxx) identify the natural sources ofcarbohydrates;

(xxxi) compare the various classes ofcarbohydrates;

(xxxii) infer the products of hydrolysis anddehydration of carbohydrates;

(xxxiii) determine the uses of carbohydrates;

(xxxiv) specify the tests for simple sugars;

(xxxv) identify the basic structure of proteins;

(xxxvi) specify the methods and products ofhydrolysis;

(xxxvii) specify the various tests for proteins;

(xxxviii) distinguish between natural and syntheticpolymers;

(xxxix) differentiate between addition andcondensation polymerization processes;

(xl) classify natural and commercial polymersand their uses;

(xli) distinguish between thermoplastics andthermosetting plastics.

18. Chemistry and Industry

Chemical industries: Types, raw materials andrelevance; Biotechnology.
Candidates should be able to:

(i) classify chemical industries in terms ofproducts;

(ii) identify raw materials for each industry;

(iii) distinguish between fine and heavychemicals;

(iv) enumerate the relevance of each of theseindustries;

(v) relate industrial processes to biotechnology.


1. Ababio, O. Y. (2009). New School Chemistry for Senior Secondary Schools (Fourth edition),
Onitsha: Africana FIRST Publishers Limited.
2. Bajah, S.T.; Teibo, B. O., Onwu, G.; and Obikwere, A. Book 1 (1999). Senior Secondary Chemistry, Books 2and 3 (2000).
Lagos: Longman.
3. Ojokuku, G. O. (2012). Understanding Chemistry for Schools and Colleges, (Revised Edition),
Press-On Chemresources.
4. Odesina, I. A. (2008). Essential: Chemistry for Senior Secondary Schools, (2nd Edition),
Lagos: TonadPublishers Limited.
5. Uche, I. O. Adenuga, I. J. and Iwuagwu, S. L. (2003). Countdown to WASSCE/SSCE, NECO, JME Chemistry,
Ibadan: Evans.

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Facts about Teachers

● ● ● Teachers Are Great No Controversy.

● ● ● Teachers are like candles, they burn themselves to light others.

● ● ● Teachers don't teach for the money.

● ● ● Every great mind was once taught by some brilliant teachers.

● ● ● Teachers are the second parents we have.

● ● ● If you can write your name, thank your teacher.

Teaching slogans

● ● ● Until the learner learns the teacher has not taught.

● ● ● I hear and forget, I see and remember, I do and know.

● ● ● The good teacher explains. The superior teacher demonstrates. The great teacher inspires.

We provide educational resources/materials, curriculum guide, syllabus, scheme of work, lesson note & plan, waec, jamb, O-level & advance level GCE lessons/tutorial classes, on various topics, subjects, career, disciplines & department etc. for all the Class of Learners