BIOLOGY

JAMB SYLLABUS ON BIOLOGY



GENERAL OBJECTIVES:

The aim of the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) syllabus in Biology is to preparethe candidates for the Board’s examination. It is designed to test their achievement of the courseobjectives, which are to:

1. demonstrate sufficient knowledge of the concepts of the diversity, interdependence and unity oflife;

2. account for continuity of life through reorganization, inheritance and evolution;

3. apply biological principles and concepts to everyday life, especially to matters affecting livingthings, individual, society, the environment, community health and the economy.


DETAILED SYLLABUS

DETAILED SYLLABUS
SECTION A: VARIETY OF ORGANISMS
TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
OBJECTIVES, Candidates should be able to:

1. Living organisms:

a. Characteristics

b. Cell structure and functions of cell components

c. Level of organization

i. Cell e.g. euglena and paramecium,
ii. Tissue, e.g. epithelial tissues and hydra
iii. Organ, e.g. onion bulb
iv. Systems, e.g. reproductive, digestive andexcretory
v. Organisms e.g. Chlamydomonas
i. differentiate between the characteristics of living and non-livingthings.

ii. identify the structures of plants and animal cells.

iii. analyse the functions of the components of plants and animalcells.

iv. compare and contrast the structure of plant and animal cells.

v. trace the levels of organization among organisms in theirlogical sequence in relation to the five levels of organizationof living organisms.

2. Evolution among the following:

a. Monera (prokaryotes), e.g. bacteria andblue green algae.

b. Protista (protozoans and protophyta),e.g. Amoeba, Euglena and Paramecium

c. Fungi, e.g. mushroom and Rhizopus.

d. Plantae (plants)

i. Thallophyta (e.g. Spirogyra)
ii. Bryophyta (mosses and liveworts) e.g.Brachmenium and Merchantia.
iii. Pteridophyta (ferns) e.g. Dryopteris.
iv. Spermatophyta (Gymnospermae andAngiospermae)
- Gymnosperms e.g. Cycads and conifers.
- Angiosperms (monocots, e.g. maize; dicots,e.g. water leaf)
e. Animalia (animals)

i. Invertebrates
- coelenterate (e.g. Hydra)
- Platyhelminthes (flatworms) e.g. Taenia
- Nematoda (roundworms)
- Annelida (e.g. earthworm)
- Arthropoda e.g. mosquito, cockroach,housefly, bee, butterfly
- Mollusca (e.g. snails)
ii. Multicellular animals (vertebrates)
- pisces (cartilaginous and bony fish)
- Amphibia (e.g. toads and frogs)
- Reptilia (e.g. lizards, snakes and turtles)
- Aves (birds)
- Mammalia (mammals)
i. analyse external features and characteristics of the listedorganisms:

ii. apply the knowledge from (i) above to demonstrate increase instructural complexity .

iii. trace the stages in the life histories of the listed organisms.

iv. apply the knowledge of the life histories to demonstrategradual transition from life in water to life on land.

v. trace the evolution of the listed plants.

vi. trace the advancement of the invertebrate animals.

vii. determine the economic importance of theinsects studied.

viii. asses their values to the environment.

ix. trace the advancement of multi-cellular animals.

x. determine their economic importance.

3.a Structural/functional and behaviouraladaptations of organisms.

b. adaptive colouration and its functions

c. Behavioural adaptations in social animals

d. Structural adaptations in organisms.

i. describe how the various structures, functions and behaviour adaptthese organisms to their environment, and way of life

i. Categorize countershading in fish, toads, snakes and warningcolouration in mushrooms.

i. Differentiate various castes in social insects like termites and theirfunctions in their colony hive.

ii. Account for basking in lizards, territorial behavour of otheranimals under unfavourable conditions (hibernation andaestivation).

Candidates should be able to account for adaptation in organismswith respect to the following:

i. Obtaining food (beaks and legs of birds, mouthparts of insects,especially mosquito, butterfly and moth.)

ii. Protection and defence (stick insects, praying mantis and toad).

iii. Securing mates (redhead male and female Agama lizards,display of feathers by birds).

iv. Regulating body temperature (skin, feathers and hairs)

v. Conserving water (spines in plants and scales in mammals).
DETAILED SYLLABUS
SECTION B: FORM AND FUNCTIONS
TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
OBJECTIVES, Candidates should be able to:

1. Internal structure of a flowering plant

a. i. Root

ii. Stem

iii. Leaf

b. Internal structure of a mammal
i. identify the transverse sections of theseorgans.

a. relate the structure of these organs to theirfunctions.

b. identify supporting tissues in plants (collenchyma)sclerenchyma, xylem and phloem fibres)

c. describe the distribution of supporting tissues in roots, stemand leaf

i. examine the arrangement of the mammalian internal organs.

ii. describe the appearance and position of the digestive,reproductive and excretory organs.

2. Nutrition

a. Modes of nutrition

i. Autotrophic

ii. Heterotrophic

b. Types of Nutrition

c. Plant nutrition

i. Photosynthesis

ii. Mineral requirements(macro and micro-nutrients)

d. Animal nutrition

i. Classes of food substances; carbohydrates, proteins,fats and oils, vitamins, mineral salts and water

ii. Food tests (e.g. starch, reducing sugar, protein, oil, fatetc.

iii. The mammalian tooth (structures, types and functions)

iv. Mammalian alimentary canal

v. Nutrition process (ingestion, digestion, absorption,and assimilation of digested food.
Candidates should be able to:

i. compare the photosynthetic and chemosynthetic modes ofnutrition;

ii. provide examples from both flowering and non- floweringplants.

iii. compare autotrophic and heterotrophic modes of nutrition.

Candidates should be able to:

differentiate the following examples:

- holozoic (sheep and man)

- Parasitic (roundworm, tapeworm and Loranthus)

- saprophytic (Rhizopus and mushroom)

- carnivorous plants (sundew and bladderwort)

- determine their nutritional value.

Candidates should be able to:

i. differentiate the light and dark reactions, and state conditionsnecessary for photosynthesis.

ii. determine the necessity of light, carbon (IV) oxide andchlorophyll in photosynthesis.

iii. detect the presence of starch in a leaf as an evidence ofphotosynthesis.

Candidates should be able to:

i. identify macro-and micro-elements required by plants.

ii. recognise the deficiency symptoms of nitrogen, phosphorousand potassium.

Candidates should be able to:

i. indicate the sources of the various classes of food;

ii. relate the importance and deficiency e.g. scurvy, rickets,kwashiorkor etc. of each class;

iii. determine the importance of a balanced diet.

Candidates should be able to detect the presence of the listed fooditems from the result of a given experiment.

Candidates should be able to:

i. describe the structure of a typical mammalian tooth;

ii. differentiate the types of mammalian tooth and relate theirstructures to their functions.

iii. compare the dental formulae of man, sheep, and dog.

Candidates should be able to:

i. relate the structure of the various components of the alimentarycanal and its accessory organs (liver, pancreas, and gall bladder)to their functions.

Candidates should be able to:

i. identify the general characteristics of digestive enzymes;

ii. associate enzymes with digestion of carbohydrates, proteinsand fats;

iii. determine the end products of these classes of food.

3. Transport

a. Need for transportation

b. Materials for transportation.

Excretory products, gases, manufactured food,digested food, nutrient, water and hormones)

c. Channels for transportation

i. Mammalian circulatory system (heart, arteries,veins, and capillaries)

ii Plant vascular system (phloem and xylem)

d. Media and processes of mechanism for transportation.
Candidates should be able to:

i. determine the relationship between increase in size andcomplexity and the need for the development of a transportsystem in plants and animals.

Candidates should be able to:

i. determine the sources of materials and the forms in which theyare transported.

Candidates should be able to:

i. describe the general circulatory system;

ii. compare specific functions of the hepatic portal vein, thepulmonary vein and artery, aorta, the renal artery and veinCandidates should be able to:

i. identify the organs of the plant vascular system.

ii. understand the specific functions of the phloem and xylem.

Candidates should be able to:

i. identify media of transportation (e.g. cytoplasm,cell sap, body fluid, blood and lymph);

ii. know the composition and functions of blood and lymph;

iii. describe diffusion, osmosis, plasmolysis andturgidity as mechanism of transportation in organisms.

iv. compare the various mechanisms of opencirculatory systems, in animal transpiration pull, rootpressure and active transport as mechanism of transportationin plants.

4. Respiration

a. Respiratory organs and surfaces

b. The mechanism of gaseous exchange in:

i. Plants

ii. Mammals

c. Aerobic respiration

d. Anaerobic respiration
Candidates should be able to:

i. examine the significance of respiration;

ii. describe a simplified outline of the chemical process involvedin glycolysis and krebs cycle with reference to the role ATPiii deduce from an experimental set up, gaseous exchange andproducts, exchange and production of heat energy duringrespiration.

Candidates should be able to:

i. describe the following respiratory organs and surfaces withorganisms in which they occur; body surface, gill, trachea,lungs, stomata and lenticel.

Candidates should be able to:

i. describe the mechanism for the opening and closing of thestomata;

ii. determine respiratory movements in these animals.

Candidates should be able to:

iii. examine the role of oxygen in the liberation ofenergy for the activities of the living organisms;

iv. deduce the effect of insufficient supply of oxygen to themuscles.

Candidates should be able to:

i. use yeast cells and sugar solution to demonstratethe process of fermentation.

ii. know the economic importance of yeasts.

5. Excretion

a. Types of excretory structures:

contractile vacuole, flamecell,nephridium, Malpighian tubule, kidney,stoma and lenticel.

b. Excretory mechanisms:

i. Kidneys

ii. lungs

ii. skin

c. Excretory products of plants
Candidates should be able to:

i. define the meaning and state the significance of excretion;

ii. relate the characteristics of each structure with functions.

Candidates should be able to:

i. relate the structure of the kidneys to the excretoryand osmo-regulatory functions.

ii. identify the functions and excretory products ofthe lungs and the skin.

Candidates should be able to:

i. deduce the economic importance of the excretoryproducts of plants, e.g carbon (IV) oxide, oxygen, tannins,resins, gums, mucilage, alkaloids etc.

6. Support and movement

a. Tropic, tactic, nastic and sleepmovements in plantsb. supporting tissues in animals

c. Types and functions of the skeleton

i. Exoskeleton

ii. Endoskeleton

iii. Functions of the skeleton in animals
Candidates should be able to:i. determine the need for support and movement inorganisms;

ii. identify supporting tissues in plants (collenchyma,sclerenchyma, xylem and phloem fibres);

iii. describe the distribution of supporting tissues inroots, stem, and leaf.

Candidates should be able to:

i. relate the response of plants to the stimuli of light,water, gravity and touch;

ii. identify the regions of growth in roots and shootsand the roles of auxins in tropism.

Candidates should be able to:

i. relate the location of chitin, cartilage and bone totheir supporting function.

ii. relate the structure and the general layout of themammalian skeleton to their supportive, locomotive andrespiratory function.

iii. differentiate types of joints using appropriateexamples.

Candidates should be able to:

i. apply the protective, supportive, locomotive andrespiratory functions of the skeleton to the well being of the animal.

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7. Reproduction

a. A sexual reproduction

i. Fission as in Paramecium

ii. Budding as in yeast

iii. Natural vegetative propagation

iv. Artificial vegetative propagation.

b. sexual reproduction in flowering plants

i. Floral parts and their functions

ii. Pollination and fertilization

iii. products of sexual reproduction

c. Reproduction in mammals

i. structures and functions of the male and femalereproductive organs

ii. Fertilization and development.

(Fusion of gametes)
Candidates should be able to:

i. differentiate between asexual and sexual reproduction

ii. apply natural vegetative propagation in crop production andmultiplication.

iii. apply grafting, budding and layering in agricultural practices.

Candidates should be able to:

i. relate parts of flower to their functions and reproductive process.

ii. deduce the advantages of cross pollination.

iii. deduce the different types of placentation that develop intosimple, aggregate, multiple and succulent fruits.

Candidates should be able to:

i. differentiate between male and female reproductive organs

ii. relate their structure and function to the production of offspring.

Candidates should be able to:

i. describe the fusion of gametes as a process offertilization.

ii. relate the effects of the mother’s health, nutritionand indiscriminate use of drugs on the developmental stagesof the embryo up to birth.

iii. modern methods of regulating reproduction on e.g. invitrofertilization and birth control

8. Growth

a. meaning of growth

b. Germination of seeds and conditionnecessary for germination of seeds.
Candidates should be able to:

i. apply the knowledge of the conditions necessary forgermination on plants growth.

ii. differentiate between epigeal and hypogeal germination.

9. Co-ordination and control

a. Nervous coordination:

i. the components, structure and functionsof the central nervous system;

ii. The components and functions of theperipheral nervous systems;

iii. Mechanism of transmission of impulses;

iv. Reflex action

b. The sense organs

i. skin (tactile)

ii. nose (olfactory)

iii. tongue (taste)

iv. eye (sight)

v. ear (auditory)

c. Hormonal control

i. animal hormonal system

- Pituitary

- thyroid

- parathyroid

- adrenal gland

- pancreas

- gonads

ii. Plant hormones (phytohormones)

d. Homeostasis

i. Body temperature regulation

ii. Salt and water regulation
Candidates should be able to:

i. apply the knowledge of the structure and function of the centralnervous system in the coordination of body functions inorganisms.

ii. illustrate reflex actions such as blinking of the eyes, knee jerketc.

iii. differentiate between reflex and voluntary actions as well asconditioned reflexes such as salivation, riding a bicycle andswimming.

Candidates should be able to:

i. associate the listed sense organs with their functions.

ii. apply the knowledge of the structure and functions of thesesense organs in detecting and correcting their defects.

Candidates should be able to:

i. locate the listed endocrine glands in animals.

ii. relate the hormone produced by each of these glands to theirfunctions.

Candidates should be able to:

i. examine the effects of various phytohormones (e.g. auxins,gibberellin, cytokinin, and ethylene) on growth, tropism,flowering, fruit ripening and leaf abscission.

Candidates should be able to:

i. relate the function of hormones to regulating the levels ofmaterials inside the body.
DETAILED SYLLABUS
SECTION C: ECOLOGY
TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
OBJECTIVES, Candidates should be able to:

1. Factors affecting the distribution ofOrganisms

i. Abiotic

ii. Biotic
Candidates should be able to:

i. deduce the effects of temperature; rainfall, relativehumidity, wind speed and direction, altitude, salinity,turbidity, pH and edaphic (soil) conditions on the distributionof organisms.

ii. use appropriate equipment (e.g. secchi disc,thermometer, rain gauge etc) to measure abiotic factors.

Candidates should be able to:

i. describe how the activities of plants/animals (particularlyhuman) affect the distribution of organisms.

2. Symbiotic interactions of plantsand animals

(a) Energy flow in the ecosystem: food chains,food webs and trophic levels

(b) Nutrient cycling in nature

i. carbon cycle

ii. water cycle

iii. Nitrogen cycle
Candidates should be able to explain:

i. food chains and webs

Candidates should be able to:

i. describe the cycle and its significance including the balance ofatmospheric oxygen and carbon (IV) oxide and globalwarming.

Candidates should be able to:

i. assess the effects of water cycle on other nutrient cycles.

Candidates should be able to:

i. relate the roles of bacteria and leguminous plants in the cyclingof nitrogen.

3. Natural Habitats

(a) Aquatic (e.g. ponds, streams, lakesseashores and mangrove swamps)

(b) Terrestrial/arboreal (e.g. tree-tops of oil palm,abandoned farmland or a dry grassy (savanna) field,and burrow or hole.
Candidates should be able to:

i. associate plants and animals with each of these habitats.Candidates should be able to:

i. relate adaptive features to the habitats in which organismslive.

4. Local (Nigerian) Biomes

a. Tropical rainforest

b. Guinea savanna (southern and northern)

c. Sudan Savanna

d. Desert

e. Highlands of montane forests and grasslands of theObudu, Jos, Mambilla Plateau.
Candidates should be able to:

i. locate biomes in regions

ii. apply the knowledge of the features of the listed localbiomes in determining the characteristics of differentregions of Nigeria.

5. The Ecology of Populations:

(a) Population density and overcrowding.

(b) Adaptation for survival

i. Factors that bring about competition

ii. Intra and inter-specific competition

iii. Relationship between competition andsuccession.

(c) Factors affecting population sizes:

i. Biotic (e.g. food, pest, disease, predation, competition,reproductive ability).

ii. Abiotic (e.g. temperature, space, light, rainfall,topography, pressure, pH) etc.

(d) Ecological succession

i. primary succession

ii. secondary succession
Candidates should be able to:

i. determine the reasons for rapid changes in humanpopulation and the consequences of overcrowding.

ii. compute/calculate density as the number of organisms perunit area.

Candidates should be able to:

i) Relate increase in population, diseases, shortage of foodand space with intra- and inter-specific competition.

Candidates should be able to:

i) Determine niche differentiation as a means of reducingintra-specific completion.

Candidates should be able to:

i) Relate competition to succession.

Candidates should be able to:

i. deduce the effect of these factors on the size of population.

ii. determine the interactions between biotic and abiotic factors,e.g. drought or scarcity of water which leads to foodshortage and lack of space which causes increase in diseaserates.

Candidates should be able to:

i. trace the sequence in succession to the climax stage ofstability in plant population.

6. SOIL

a) (i) characteristics of different typesof soil (sandy, loamy, clayey)

i. soil structure

ii. porosity, capillarity and humuscontent

iii. Components of the soil

i. inorganic

ii. organic

iii. soil organisms

iv. soil air

v. soil water

Soil fertility:

i. loss of soil fertility

ii. renewal and maintenance of soil fertility
Candidates should be able to:

i. identify physical properties of different soil types based onsimple measurement of particle size, porosity or waterretention ability.

ii. determine the amounts of air, water, humus and capillarity indifferent soil types experimentally.

Candidates should be able to:

i. relate soil characteristics, types and components to thehealthy growth of plants

Candidates should be able to:

i. relate such factors as loss of inorganic matter, compaction,leaching, erosion of the top soil and repeated cropping withone variety.

Candidates should be able to:

i. apply the knowledge of the practice of contour ridging,terracing, mulching, poly-cropping, strip-cropping, use oforganic and inorganic fertilizers, crop rotation, shiftingcultivation, etc. to enhance soil conservation.

7. Humans and Environment

(a) Diseases:

(i) Common and endemic diseases.

ii. Easily transmissible diseases and diseasesyndrome such as:

- poliomyelitis

- cholera

- tuberculosis

- sexually transmitted disease/syndrome
(gonorrhea, syphilis, AIDS, etc.)

b. Pollution and its control

(i) sources, types, effects and methods of control.

(ii) Sanitation and sewage

(c) Conservation of Natural Resources

(d) Game reserves and National parks
Candidates should be able to:

i. identify ecological conditions that favour the spread ofcommon endemic and potentially epidemic diseases e.g.
malaria, meningitis, drancunculiasis, schistosomiasis,onchocerciasis, typhoid fever and cholera etc.

ii. relate the biology of the vector or agent of each disease withits spread and control.

Candidates should be able to:

i. use the knowledge of the causative organisms, mode oftransmission and symptoms of the listed diseases to theirprevention/treatment/control.

ii. apply the principles of inoculation and vaccination ondisease prevention.

Candidates should be able to:

i. categorize pollution into air, water and soil.

ii. relate the effects of common pollutants to human healthand environmental degradation.

iii. determine the methods by which each pollutant may becontrolled.

Candidates should be able to:

i. examine the importance of sanitation with emphasis on solidwaste, sewage disposal, community health and personalhygiene.

ii assess the roles and functions of international and nationalhealth agencies e.g. World Health Organization (WHO),
United Nations International Children Emergency Fund(UNICEF),
International Red Cross Society (IRCS),
and theministries of health and environment.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) apply the various methods of conservation of both therenewable and non-renewable natural resources for theprotection of our environment for present and futuregenerations.

(ii) outline the benefits of conserving natural resources,prevention of desertification.

(iii) identify the bodies responsible for the conservation ofresources at the national and international levels (e.g.Nigerian Conservation Foundation (NCF),
FederalMinistry of Environment,
Nigeria National Parks,
WorldWildlife Foundation (WWF),
International Union forConservation of Nature (IUCN),United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) andtheir activities.

(iv) asses their activities.

Candidates should be able to:

i. Know the location and importance of game reserves andNational parks in Nigeria
DETAILED SYLLABUS
SECTION D: HEREDITY AND VARIATIONS
TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
OBJECTIVES, Candidates should be able to:

(I) Variation In Population

a. Morphological variations in the physical appearanceof individuals.

(i) size (height, weight)

(ii) Colour (skin, eye, hair, coat of animals, scalesand feathers.

(iii) Fingerprints

b. Physiological variation

(i) Ability to roll tongue

(ii) Ability to taste

phenylthiocarbamide (PTC)

(iii) Blood groups

c. Application of discontinuousvariation in crime detection,blood transfusion anddetermination of paternity.
Candidates should be able to:i. differentiate between continuous and discontinuous variationswith examples.

ii. relate the role of environmental conditions, habitat and thegenetic constitution to variation.

Candidates should be able to:

i) measure heights and weights of pupils of the same age group;

ii) plot graphs of frequency distribution of the heights andweights.

Candidates should be able to:

i) observe and record various colour patterns in some plants andmammals.

Candidates should be able to:

i) apply classification of fingerprints in identity detection.Candidates should be able to:

i) identify some specific examples ofphysiological variation among human population.

ii) categorize people according to their physiological variation.

Candidates should be able to:

i) apply the knowledge of blood groups inblood transfusion and determination of paternity.

ii) use discontinuous variation in crime detection.

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2. Heredity

a) Inheritance of characters in organisms;

i) Heritable and non-heritable characters.

b) Chromosomes – the basis of heredity;

(i) Structure

(ii) Process of transmission of hereditary

characters from parents to offspring.

c) Probability in genetics and sex determination.

a) Application of the principles of heredity in:

i) Agriculture

(ii) Medicine

b. Sex – linked characters e.g.
baldness,haemophilia, colour blindness, etc.
Candidates should be able to:

i. determine heritable and non-heritable characters withexamples.

Candidates should be able to:

i. illustrate simple structure of DNA

Candidates should be able to:

i. illustrate segregation of genes at meiosis and recombinationof genes at fertilization to account for the process oftransmission of characters from parents to offsprings.

Candidates should be able to:

i) deduce that segregation of genes occurs during gameteformation and that recombination of genes at fertilization israndom in nature.

Candidates should be able to:

i. analyze data on cross-breeding experiments.

ii. apply the principles of heredity in the production of newvarieties of crops and livestock through cross-breeding.

iii. deduce advantages and disadvantagesof out-breeding and in-breeding.

iv. analyze elementarily the contentious issues of geneticallymodified organisms (GMO) and gene therapy and biosafety.

Candidates should be able to:

i) apply the knowledge of heredity in marriage counselling withparticular reference to blood grouping, sickle-cellanaemia and the Rhesus factors.

ii) examine the significance of using recombinant DNAmaterials in the production of important medical productssuch as insulin, interferon and enzymes.

Candidates should be able to:

i) identify characters that are sex linked.
DETAILED SYLLABUS
SECTION E: EVOLUTION
TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES
OBJECTIVES, Candidates should be able to:

1. Theories of evolution

a) Lamarck’s theory

b) Darwin’s theory

c) organic theory
Candidates should be able to:

i.) relate organic evolution as the sum total of all adaptivechanges that have taken place over a long period of timeresulting in the diversity of forms, structures andfunctions among organisms.

ii.) examine the contributions of Lamarck and Darwin to thetheory of evolution.

iii.) know evidences in support of organic evolution

2. Evidence of evolution

Candidates should be able to:

i.) provide evidences for evolution such as fossil records,comparative anatomy, physiology and embryology.

ii.) trace evolutionary trends in plants and animals.

iii.) provide evidence for modern evolutionary theories such asgenetic studies and the role of mutation.

RECOMMENDED TEXTS

Ndu, F.O. C. Ndu, Abun A. and Aina J.O. (2001) Senior Secondary School Biology:

Books 1 -3, Lagos: Longman

Odunfa, S.A. (2001) Essential of Biology, Ibadan: Heinemann

Ogunniyi M.B. Adebisi A.A. and Okojie J.A. (2000) Biology for Senior Secondary Schools: Books 1 – 3, Macmillan

Ramalingam, S.T. (2005) Modern Biology, SS Science Series. New Edition, AFP

Stan. (2004) Biology for Senior Secondary Schools. Revised Edition, Ibadan: Heinemann

Stone R.H. and Cozens, A.B.C. (1982) Biology for West African Schools. Longman

Usua, E.J. (1997) Handbook of practical Biology 2nd Edition, University Press, Limited

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