The aim of the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination syllabus in Agriculture is to prepare thecandidates for the Board’s examination. It is designed to test their achievement of the course objectives,which are to:

1. stimulate and sustain their interest in Agriculture;
2. acquire basic knowledge and practical skills in Agriculture;
3. acquire the knowledge of interpretation and the use of data;
4. stimulate their ability to make deductions using the acquired knowledge in Agriculture.
The syllabus is divided into five sections as given below:
A. General Agriculture
B. Agronomy
C. Animal Production
D. Agricultural Economics and Extension
E. Agricultural Technology


SECTION A: General Agriculture
OBJECTIVES, Candidates should be able to:

1. Meaning and Scope of Agriculture

a. Definition of Agriculture

b. Branches of Agriculture

c. Types of Agriculture i.e subsistence andcommercial
use the definition of Agriculture in modern terms asit relates to production, processing and marketing.

differentiate between the various branches ofAgriculture.

differentiate between the various types ofAgriculture.

2. Importance of Agriculture

i. Provision of raw materials for agroalliedindustries

ii. Provision of employment

iii. Development of rural areas, etc.
relate agro-allied industries to their respective rawmaterials

relate the various contributions of Agriculture toeconomic development in West Africa.

3. Agricultural Ecology

a. Ecological zones of West Africa

b. Agricultural products of each ecological zone

c. Environmental factors and their effectson crop and livestock production
differentiate between the features of the ecologicalzones in West Africa

classify agricultural products according to each ecological zone.

differentiate abiotic from biotic factors affectingagricultural production.

4. Genetics

a. First and second laws of Mendel

b. Cell division

c. Terminologies e.g. locus, alleles,genotype, dominance
apply the first and second laws of Mendel togenetics.

differentiate between the types of cell division.

i. determine the outcome of genetic crossinginvolving homozygous and heterozygoustraits.

ii. compute simple probability ratios.

5. Farm Inputs

e.g. planting materials, agrochemicals, etc.
classify different types of farm inputs and their uses.

6. History of Agricultural Development inWest Africa

a. Agricultural systems e.g. shiftingcultivation, bush fallowing, etc.

b. Problems of Agricultural developmente.g. land tenure systems, inadequateinfrastructures, finance for agriculture,pollution, etc.

c. Establishment of national researchinstitutes e.g. NCRI, IAR, IAR&T,CRIN, NIFOR, FRIN, RRI, NRCRI,NIHORT, LCRI, etc. and internationalresearch institutes e.g. IITA, ILRI,ICRISAT, WARDA, etc., leading toincreased application of science to thedevelopment of agriculture.

d. Agricultural Development Projects(ADPs) e.g. RTEP, FADAMA etc.

e. National agricultural programmes suchas OFN, NAFPP, NALDA, GreenRevolution, NCRPs, NARP, ProjectCoordinating Unit (PCU) etc.
compare various agricultural systems.

identify the problems and proffer solutions

i. trace the history of research institutes from pastto present.

ii. assess their role in the development ofagriculture.

give reasons for the establishment of ADPs.

evaluate the contributions of national agriculturalprogrammes.

7. Roles of Government and NGOs inAgricultural Development

a. Development of fiscal policiesfavourable to agricultural productione.g. import duties, ban on importation,e.t.c.

b. Agricultural laws and reforms e.g LandUse Act.

c. Government programmes aimed atagricultural development e.g. subsidies,credit facilities, e.t.c.

d. Provision of infrastructures e.g.transport systems, communicationsystems, e.t.c.

e. Contribution of NGOs to agriculturaldevelopment
evaluate the effects of government policies onagricultural development.

identify agricultural laws and their effect onagricultural production

i. identify the various agricultural incentivesprovided by the government.

ii. assess their effects on agricultural the various infrastructural facilitiesprovided by government and their uses.

examine the roles of NGOs in the development ofagriculture.
SECTION B: Agronomy
OBJECTIVES, Candidates should be able to:

1. Rocks and Soil formation

a. Factors affecting rock weathering andsoil formation

b. Physical properties of soil

i. Soil profile

ii. Soil texture and structure

c. Chemical properties of soil

i. Soil acidity and alkalinity

ii. Chemical components of soil e.g.silicate
identify major types and properties of rocks andsoils; factors and processes of soil formation.

differentiate between the horizons in a soil profile.

i. differentiate between the components of soil.

ii. compute the proportion of soil constituents.

iii. analyse soil into its constituents parts.

iv. determine the water-holding capacity of soil.determine the soil pH.

2. Soil Water and Soil Conservation

a. Soil water: its importance, sources,movement, management andconservation.

b. Soil conservation: meaning andimportance, causes, effects,prevention and control of leaching,erosion, continuous cropping,burning and oxidation of organicmatter.

c. Irrigation and drainage methods.
i. compare capillary, gravitational and hygroscopicwater.

ii. determine water-holding capacity, wilting pointsand plant available/unavailable water.

i. identify the causes of erosion and leaching.

ii. determine control methods.

iii. classify irrigation and drainage systems.

iv. examine the importance and challenges ofirrigation and drainage.

3. Soil Fertility

a. Macro and micro-nutrients and theirroles in plant nutrition: carbon, waterand nitrogen cycles

b. The living population of the soil(flora and fauna), and their roles insoil fertility

c. Maintenance of soil fertility:Methods of maintaining soil fertilitye.g. use of cover crops, application oforganic manures, etc.

d. Nutrient deficiency symptoms e.g.chlorosis, sickle leaves, stunting,apical necrosis etc.
i. classify plant nutrients.

ii. identify factors affecting their availability.examine the roles of soil flora and fauna inmaintaining soil fertility.

iii. compare the different methods of maintainingsoil fertility.

iv. differentiate between organic and inorganicfertilizer, and their methods of application.

v. determine common fertilizer ratios.

vi. identify the deficiency symptoms and theircauses.

vii. suggest remedies.

4. Land Preparation and Soil Tillage

a. Principles and practices of landpreparation and soil tillage

b. Factors affecting choice of tillagemethods: Zero tillage, minimumtillage, etc.
i. compare the different methods of landpreparation and soil tillage in relation todifferent groups of crops.

ii. give reasons for the advantages and thedisadvantages of land preparation and soiltillage.

give reasons for the choice of tillage methods.

5. Plant Forms and Functions

a. Parts of monocot and dicot cropplants and their functions

b. The anatomy and morphology of thestorage organs of common cropplants
i. identify crop plant parts and their functions.

ii. distinguish between monocot and dicot cropplants

differentiate the various storage organs of crop plants

6. Growth, Development andReproduction

a. Gametogenesis

b. Pollination

c. Fertilization

d. Embryo formation and development
examine the process of gamete formation.

give reasons for different types of pollination.

analyse the process of fertilization.

trace the process of embryo formation anddevelopment to the formation of seeds and fruits.

7. Plant Propagation Methods

a. Sexual: the use of seeds, seedviability, viability test, seed rate andseed germination

b. Asexual (vegetative propagation) e.g.cutting, budding, grafting, layering,e.t.c.

c. Nursery and nursery management
i. classify crops propagated by sexual methods.

ii. determine seed viability and seed rate.

iii. differentiate between types of seed germination.

iv. examine the conditions for seed germination.

classify crops into different vegetative propagationmethods.

v. determine appropriate nursery sites, types; theiradvantages and disadvantages.

vi. apply the techniques of transplanting seedlings

8. Cropping Systems, Planting Patternsand Plant Densities

a. Cropping systems:
Monocropping,mixed-, multiple-, inter-, relay-, stripandrotational cropping

b. Planting patterns:
Broadcasting, row spacing anddrilling

c. Plant densities:
single, double andmultiple stands
i. compare cropping systems.

ii. apply different cropping systems to solveproblems in agriculture.

iii. differentiate between the various planting patterns.

iv. examine the various types of plant densities andtheir effects on crop yield.

v. compute plant density per hectare.

9. Crop Husbandry

Common and scientific names, grossmorphology, anatomy of storage organs,methods of propagation, husbandrypractices, harvesting, processing andstorage, common diseases and pests,economic importance of the followinggroups of crops.

Group 1:
Cereals e.g maize, guinea corn, rice

Group 2:
Legumes e.g. cowpea,groundnut, soyabean

Group 3:
Tubers e.g. yam, cassava, sweetpotatoes

Group 4:
Vegetables and Spices e.g.tomatoes, egg plant, pepper,onions, okra, cabbage,Amaranthus sp.

Group 5:
Fruits e.g. citrus, pineapple,pawpaw

Group 6:
Beverages e.g. cocoa, kola,coffee

Group 7:
Oils e.g. oil palm, coconut, sheabutter

Group 8:
Latex e.g. para rubber, gumarabic

Group 9:
Fibres e.g jute, cotton, sisalhemp

Group 10:
Sugars e.g sugarcane, beet
i. apply the different methods of crop propagation,husbandry, harvesting, processing and storagefor each crop.

ii. identify common diseases and pests and theireffects on crop yield.

iii. determine the economic importance of each ofthe crops.

iv. relate their importance to national economicdevelopment.

10. Pasture and Forage Crops

a. Study of gross morphology, methodsof propagation and husbandry ofcommon pasture grasses andlegumes. Establishment,maintenance, conservation and usesof pastures and forage crops.

b. Study of natural grasslands and theirdistribution in West Africa

c. Range management
i. classify common grasses and legumes used aspastures and forage

ii. differentiate between pasture and forage cropsby their common and scientific names.

iii. distinguish between the various methods ofconserving pastures e.g. hay- and silagemaking.

relate different vegetational zones to their dominantpasture species.

determine range types and utilization of rangeresources in Nigeria

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11. Floriculture

Identification, establishment, maintenanceand uses of ornamental trees, shrubs andflowers
i. distinguish between common ornamental trees,shrubs and flowers.

ii. determine their uses and maintenance.

12. Weeds

a. Gross morphology, methods ofreproduction, dispersal and effect ofweeds

b. Weed control methods – weeding,mulching, cover cropping, tillage,herbicides and trap cropping
i. identify weeds with their common andscientific names.

ii. classify weeds according to their mode ofdispersal.

apply various weed control methods.

13. Crop Diseases

a. Identification of disease–causingorganisms both in store and in thefield.

b. A simple account of diseases causedby fungi, bacteria, nematodes andviruses; the nature of the damage,methods of transmission andcommon methods of control.

c. Side effects of application ofpreventive and control methods e.gpollution, poisoning and distributionof ecosystem.
distinguish between common store and field disease– causing organisms.

i. relate various disease-causing organisms to thedamage caused, symptoms and their mode ofspread.

ii. apply appropriate control methods.relate each control method to its side effect.

14. Crop Pests

a. General account of pests ofagricultural plants both in the fieldand in the store, their types,importance, principles and methodsof prevention and control

b. Life cycles of: biting insects e.g.grasshopper; boring insects e.g.weevils; sucking insects e.g. aphidsand cotton strainer.

c. Common pesticides and their sideeffects
i. identify the various field and store pests.

ii. assess their economic importance.

iii. relate various prevention and control methodsto different pests.

iv. describe the life cycles of various insects.v. apply the knowledge of the life cycles of insectpests to their prevention and control.

vi. differentiate between common pesticides.

vii. examine their mode of action on pests.

15. Forest Management (Silviculture)

a. Importance:
Source of wood, pulp,fibre and other forest products

b. Conservation:
regulation, exploitation,regeneration, afforestation,agro-forestry and taungya system
relate various forest products to their uses.

i. compare different forest conservation methods.

ii. apply the various methods appropriately.

16. Crop improvement

Methods of crop improvement e.g.introduction, selection, crossing,quarantine e.t.c.
i. give reasons for crop improvement.

ii. distinguish between various methods of cropimprovement.
SECTION C: Animal Production
OBJECTIVES, Candidates should be able to:

1. Forms and classification of major farmanimals in West Africa

a. Species, breeds and distribution

b. External features of cattle, sheep,goat, pigs, rabbits and poultry
i. classify various breeds of farm animals.

ii. locate where they are found.

identify their features.

2. General terminology in animalproduction

Common terms used in animal husbandry,e.g. calving, kidding, castrate, capon,veal, mutton, e.t.c.
use various terms in animal husbandry.

3. Anatomy and physiology of farmanimals

a. Functions of tissues and organs offarm animals

b. Animal body systems e.g. digestive(ruminants and non-ruminants),reproductive, respiratory, urinary(excretory) and nervous systems.

c. Effect of environmental changes onphysiological development of farmanimals e.g climate change
distinguish between various functions of tissues andorgans of farm animals.

compare different body systems in farm animals.

determine the effects of climate change on farmanimals

4. Reproduction in farm animals

a. Gametogenesis, oestrus cycle, signsof heat and heat periods, secondarysexual characters, gestation periods,parturition and the role of hormonesin reproduction.

b. Development, nourishment and birthof the young. Mammary glands andlactation in farm animals.

c. Egg formation, incubation andhatching in poultry.
i. give an account of the process of reproductionin farm animals.

ii. determine the role of hormones inreproduction.

trace the development in farm animals fromfertilization to birth and care of the young.

trace the process of egg formation and incubation inpoultry.

5. Animal nutrition

a. Feed nutrients and functions

b. Feeds and feeding: Simple rationformulation – balanced ration,common pasture/forage crops e.g.guinea grass, elephant grass, giantstar grass. Andropogon sp,Calopogonium sp. Hay and silagepreparation, different types of rations,namely maintenance ration andproduction ration.

c. Nutrient deficiencies: Causes andsymptoms of malnutrition and theircorrection in farm animals.
identify the various feed nutrients, their sources andfunctions.

i. differentiate between the types of animal feedsand their formulation.

ii. relate the various types of rations to differentclasses of livestock.

iii. trace symptoms to nutrient deficiencies in farmanimals.

iv. apply appropriate corrective measures tonutrient deficiencies in farm animals.

6. Livestock management

Housing, feeding, sanitation andveterinary care of ruminants, pigs, rabbitsand poultry under intensive, semiintensiveand extensive systems ofmanagement from birth to slaughter.
apply the different management practices for farmanimals.

7. Animal Health

a. Animal diseases (pathology)
i. Environmental factors
predisposing animals to diseases;causal organisms, symptoms,transmission and effects.ii. Preventive and curative methodsfor diseases caused by viruses,bacteria, fungi and protozoa.

b. Parasites (parasitology)
i. Life cycles and economicimportance of livestock parasitese.g. endoparasites, ectoparasitesand disease vectors.
ii. Prevention and control
- dipping
- spraying
- deworming
- sanitation
i. identify diseases of farm animals andcausative agents.

ii. classify livestock diseases based on symptomsand mode of transmission.

iii. apply appropriate preventive and curativemeasures against diseases caused by thesepathogens.

iv. classify livestock parasites.

v. determine their role in disease trace life cycles of parasites from egg to adultstage.

vii. apply appropriate prevention and control methodsagainst livestock parasites.

8. Fisheries and Wildlife

a. Fish culture systems; Common typesof fishes e. g Tilapia, Catfish, etc.
i. Extensive systems: inland anddeep sea fishing, lakes and rivers.
ii. Semi-intensive systems: dams
iii. Intensive systems: fish ponds –Factors to consider in pondsestablishment and pondmanagement e.g. pondfertilization, liming and desilting.

b. Fish harvesting and processingmethods
i. Use of drag nets, hook and line,etc.
ii. Curing, sun-drying and smoking.
iii. Fishery regulations

c. Wildlife managementHabitat conservation, feeding,domestication, harvesting,processing and wildlife regulations.
i. identify the common types of fishes in WestAfrica.

ii. differentiate between various systems of fishfarming in West Africa.

iii. determine the factors to be considered inintensive fish farming.

iv. assess the advantages and disadvantages ofdifferent fish harvesting and processingmethods.

v. use the various methods of catching fish.

vi. apply the various methods of fish preservation.

apply fishery regulations in Nigeria.

vii. identify animals found in West African gamereserves.

viii. give reasons for the establishment of gamereserves.

ix. apply common wildlife regulations.

9. Bee-keeping (Apiculture)

a. Meaning and importance of apiculture

b. Types of bees e.g exotic and indigenousbees

c. Methods of bee-keeping e.g traditionaland modern bee-keeping

d. Equipment and safety measures in beekeeping
relate bee-keeping to economic development.

differentiate between various types of bees.

classify methods of bee-keeping.

identify bee-keeping equipment and their uses

10. Animal Improvement

Methods of animal improvement e. g.introduction, breeding, quarantine andselection: Breeding systems – inbreeding,line-breeding, cross-breeding, artificialinsemination
i. give reasons for animal improvement.

ii. differentiate between the various methods ofanimal improvement.
SECTION D: Agriculture Economics and Extension
OBJECTIVES, Candidates should be able to:

1. Factors of agricultural production

a. Land
i. Types of land ownership in WestAfrica

b. Labour

c. Capital

d. Management
i. understand the meaning of land and state itsuses

ii. identify the various forms of land ownership.

iii. examine their effects of land ownership onagriculture.

iv. differentiate between the various features ofland and their effects on land use.

differentiate between the types and sources of labourand their effects on agricultural production.

compare the sources of capital and associatedproblems.

determine the functions of a farm manager in anagricultural enterprise.

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2. Basic Economic Principles

a. Demand and supply

b. Production function:
Input/input, Output/outputInput/output relationships; stages ofproduction, concepts of diminishingreturns, scale of preference and choice.
i. relate demand to supply in agriculturalproduction.

ii. interpret geographical representation ofdemand and supply.

iii. relate input to output.

iv. deduce economic concepts from graphicrepresentation.

3. Features of Agricultural Production

Smallness of farm holdings: biologicallimits of farm production andsusceptibility of farm production toclimate, seasonality of farm productions,price elasticity in demand and supply ofagricultural produce.
i. distinguish between the common features ofagricultural production and produce.

ii. compute elasticity of demand and supply.

4. Labour Management

a. Labour relations: Supervision, etc.

b. Types of labour: Permanent labour etc.

c. National labour laws and regulations.
identify the various ways of achieving labourefficiency.

differentiate between the various types and sourcesof labour.

apply national labour laws and regulations.

5. Farm Management

a. Qualities, functions and problems of afarm manager.

b. Records and record-keeping:
Types andimportance of record-keeping – livestockrecords, profit and loss account book.

c. Stock evaluation:

i. gross and net profits in farmmanagement.
ii. Appreciation, depreciation and savagevalue

d. Agricultural insurance:
i. Meaning, importance and types ofagricultural insurance
ii. Problems of agricultural insurance
identify the qualities, functions and problems of afarm manager.

i. differentiate between the types of farm records.

ii. give reasons for keeping farm records.

determine gross and net margins, appreciation,depreciation and salvage value

iii. examine the relevance of agricultural insurance

iv. determine the appropriate agricultural insurancescheme

v. determine the problems associated with agriculturalinsurance.

6. Marketing of Agricultural Produce

a. Importance of Marketing.

b. Marketing channels.

c. Characteristics of agricultural productsaffecting their marketing.
evaluate the importance of agricultural marketingi. classify marketing agents and their functions.

ii. determine the various ways in whichmarketing channels pose problems inagricultural production.

iii. determine the characteristics of agricultural productsaffecting their marketing.

7. Agricultural Extension

a. Meaning and importance.

b. The role of Agricultural Developmentprogrammes, universities, researchinstitutes and farmers’ organizations(Cooperative societies).

c. Extension methods includingdemonstration plots, use of visual aids,mass media, etc.

d. Problems of agricultural extension inWest Africa and possible solutions.
identify the importance of agricultural extension.

analyse the roles of government and nongovernmentalorganizations in agricultural extensioneducation.

differentiate between the various extension methods.

i. examine the problems of agriculturalextension in West Africa.

ii. provide possible solutions.
SECTION E: Agricultural Technology
OBJECTIVES, Candidates should be able to:

1. Farm surveying and farmsteadplanning

a. Meaning and importance

b. Common surveying equipment, their usesand care

c. Common survey methods

d. Principles of farmstead outlay.
examine the relevance of farm surveying toagriculture.

classify common surveying equipment, their usesand care.

differentiate between the common survey methods.

apply survey principles to farmstead outlay.

2. Simple farm tools

i. identify simple farm tools.

ii. use and maintain farm tools.

iii. compare the advantages and disadvantages ofsimple farm tools.

3. Farm machinery and implements

a. Types

i. Machinery e.g tractor, milkingmachine etc
ii. Implements

b. Uses and maintenance of farm machineryand implements
identify common farm machinery and implements.

i. classify farm machinery according to theiruses.

ii. apply appropriate maintenance routines on farm machines and implements.

iii. operate farm machines and implements.

4. Mechanization and sources of farmpower

a. Sources of farm power e. g. animal andmachines

b. Advantages and disadvantages ofagricultural mechanization

c. Problems and prospects of mechanizedagriculture in West Africa
compare the advantages and disadvantages ofvarious sources of farm power and their application.

distinguish between the advantages anddisadvantages of mechanization.

assess the problems and prospects of mechanizedagriculture in West Africa.

5. Processing and storage

a. Processing: traditional and modernmethods of food processing e.g. gari, riceand groundnut processing, etc.

b. Storage
i. identify the importance of agriculturalprocessing.

ii.differentiate between the various methods ofprocessing agricultural produce.

iii. compare different storage methods.

iv.apply different storage methods.

6. Introduction to biotechnology

Basic terms, e.g. tissue and anther culturein vitro fertilization and geneticengineering
i. use basic terms in biotechnology.

ii. provide reasons for the importance andapplication of biotechnology.

7. Application of ICT in agriculture

a. Features of computers

b. Uses of computers in agriculture: diseaseand weather forecasting, rationformulation, database and simulationstudies, etc.

c. Use of communication gadgets e.g mobilephone, internet, etc.
identify the various components of a computer.

use the computer to enhance agricultural practices.

use communication gadgets to enhance agriculturalproduction.

8. Introduction to agricultural researchand statistics

a. Basic concepts in planning agriculturalexperiments e.g. hypothesis, treatmentand control, etc.

b. Interpretation of results, e.g. measures ofcentral tendency and experimental errors.
use basic concepts in agricultural experiments.

i. draw inferences from experimental results.

ii. compute simple measures of central tendency.


1.Adeniyi, M. O. et al (1999) Countdown to Senior Secondary Certificate Examination Agricultural Science, Ibadan: Evans
2.Akinsanmi, O. (2000) Junior Secondary Agricultural Science, Uk: Longman.
3.Akinsanmi, O. (2000) Senior Secondary Agricultural Science, Uk: Longman.
4.Anthonio, Q. B. O. (1999) General Agriculture for West Africa, London: George Allen
5.Are, L. A. et al (2010) Comprehensive Certificate Agricultural Science for Senior Secondary Schools, University Press Plc.
6.Egbuna, C. K. et al (2014) Extension Modern Agricultural Science for Senior Secondary Schools (2010), Extension Publication
7.Emmanuel C. A. (2003) A Dictionary of Agriculture, Benue: Agitab Publisher Makurdi
Falusi, A. O. and Adeleye, I. O. A (2000) Agricultural Science for Junior Secondary Schools Books 1- 3, Ibadan: Onibonoje
8.Komolafe, M. F., Adegbola, A. A., Are, L. A. and Ashaye, T. I. (2004) Agricultural Science for Senior Secondary Schools 1, 2 and 3, Ibadan: University Press Ltd.
9.Philips T. A. (1986) Agricultural Notebook, Lagos: Longman
10. STAN (1999) Agricultural Science for Senior Secondary Schools, Lagos: Longman

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