INTEGRATED SCIENCE

WAEC SYLLABUS ON INTEGRATED SCIENCE

PREAMBLE:

This syllabus was evolved from the teaching syllabus for the Senior High School IntegratedScience issued by the Ghana Education Service in September, 2010.

Integrated Science seeks to equip the individual with the integrated body of scientific knowledgeand raise the level of scientific literacy of the individuals with comprehensive scientific skills thatenable them to function in the present technological era. Education in science also providesopportunity for the development of positive attitudes and values.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE SYLLABUS

This syllabus seeks to among other things, enable students to:
(1) acquire the skill to solve basic problems within their immediate environment throughanalysis and experimentation;

(2) keep a proper balance of the diversity of the living and non-living things based on theirinterconnectedness and repeated patterns of change;

(3) adopt sustainable habits for managing the natural environment for humankind andsociety;

(4) use appliances and gadgets effectively with clear understanding of their basic operationsand underlying principles;

(5) explore, conserve and optimise the use of energy as an important resource for the livingworld;

(6) adopt a scientific way of life based on pragmatic observation and investigation ofphenomena;

(7) search for solutions to problems of life recognizing the interaction of science, technologyand other disciplines.

PAPER 1:

Will consist of 50 compulsory multiple choice questions which wouldlast for fifty (50) minutes and carry fifty (50) marks.

REQUIREMENTS

It is presumed that candidates taking the examination must have:
(1) carried out activities relating to rearing of at least one of the following groups of animals:
(i) chickens/ducks/turkeys
(ii) goats/sheep/cattle
(iii) guinea pigs, rabbits
(2) paid visits to well established farms, and institutions related to agriculture, research ormanufacturing to observe scientific work and application of science;
(3) kept practical notebooks on records of individual laboratory and field activitiesperformed.

SCHEME OF EXAMINATION

There will be three papers, Papers 1, 2 and 3 all of which must be taken. Papers 1 and 2 will be acomposite paper to be taken at one sitting.

PAPER 1:

Will consist of fifty multiple-choice objective questions all of which must beanswered within 1 hour for 50 marks.

PAPER 2:

Will consist of six essay-type questions. Candidates will be required to answer fourquestions within 1 hour 30 minutes for 20 marks each.

PAPER 3:

Will consist of four questions on test of practical work. Candidates will be requiredto answer all the questions within 2 hours for 60 marks.


DETAILED SYLLABUS

Questions will be asked on the topics set out in the column headed “CONTENTS”. The“NOTES” are intended to indicate the scope of the questions but they are not to be as anexhaustive list of limitations and illustrations.
NOTE: The S.I units will be used for all calculations. However multiples or submultiplesof the units may also be used.


TOPICSCONTENTSNOTES

A. DIVERSITY OF MATTER

1. Introduction to IntegratedScience

1.1 Concept ofIntegrated Science

Explanation of Science as an interrelatedbody of knowledge.
Carriers in scienceand technology.

1.2 The scientificMethod

Identification of the problem.
Hypothesis formulation.
Experimentation. Data collection.
Analysis and conclusion.

1.3 Safety precautionsin the laboratory

Safety measures taken in the laboratoryand reasons for them.
2. Measurement

2.1 Basic quantities,derived quantities and their units.

Basic quantities and units of scientificmeasurement:
Length (m),
Mass(kg),
Time (s),
Temperature (K),
Current(A),
Light intensity (cd),
Amount ofsubstance (mol).

Derived quantities andtheir units:
Volume (m3),
Density (kgm-3),
Velocity(ms-1),
Force (N),
Work andEnergy (J),
Quantity of electricity (C),
Electric resistance (Ω),
Potentialdifference (V),
Power (W).

2.2 Measuring instruments

Identification and use of measuringinstruments such as ruler, balances, stopwatch, thermometer, measuring cylinder,callipers, hydrometer, pipette and buretteto measure in various units. Necessityfor measurementSources of error

2.3 Measurement of density and relativedensity

Experiments to determine the density ofequal volumes of water and salt solution.Comparison of densities of water andsalt solution. Simple experiments ofdensity of regular and irregular objects.
3. Diversity of living and non-living things

3.1 Characteristics of living things

Differences between living and nonlivingthings based on the life processes:movement, nutrition, growth,respiration, excretion, reproduction,irritability should be considered.Detailed treatment of the life processesnot required.Explanation of biodiversity

3.2 Classification schemes of livingand non-living things.

Importance of classification.Contribution of Aristotle, Linnaeus, andMendeleev. Treatment to include thefollowing levels or ranks: Living thingskingdom,division/ phylum, class, order,family, genus and species.
4. Matter

4.1 Particulate nature of matter

Elements- metals and non metals(1st to 20th elements in the periodictable).Atoms, molecules, ions, atomicstructure.

4.2 Elements, compound and mixtures

Differences between elements,compounds and mixtures.

4.3 Ionic and covalent compounds

Ionic and covalent bond formation.Characteristic properties of ionic andcovalent compounds.
IUPAC names of common compounds.

4.4 Atomic number, mass number,isotopes and relative atomic massof given elements

Relative atomic masses should beexplained using the periodic table.Carbon-12 isotope should be mentionedas reference scale.

4.5 Mole, molar mass and formulamass

The mole as unit of the physicalquantity; amount of substance. Mentionshould be made of Avogadro’s number.Calculation of formula mass and molarmass using relative atomic masses.Calculation of amount of substance inmoles given its mass.

4.6 Preparation of solutions

Preparation of standard solution ofNaOH, HCl, NaCl and sugar. Dilution ofstandard solution.
5. Cells

5.1 Plant and animal cells

Structure and function of plant andanimal cells. Drawing and labellingrequired.

5.2 Types of plant and animal cells(Specialised cells)

Red blood cell, nerve cell, leafepidermal cell, sperm cell, leaf palisadecells, lymphocyte and phagocyte.Functions of cell organelles required.

6. Rocks

6.1 Types, formation andcharacteristics of rocks.

Formation of igneous, sedimentary andmetamorphic rocks and theircharacteristics.

6.2 Weathering of rocks

Physical, biological and chemicalweathering of rocks. Explanation of theeffect of hydration, hydrolysis,carbonation and oxidation on rocks isrequired.
7. Acids, bases, and salts

7.1 Simple definitionof acids, bases,salts

Definition of acids and bases in terms ofProton transfer (Bronsted- Lowryconcept).

7.2 Physical andchemical propertiesof acids, bases andsalts

Properties and uses of acids, bases andsalts.Description of laboratory preparation ofhydrogen, carbon dioxide and ammoniagases. Test for hydrogen, carbon dioxideand ammonia gases.

7.3 Examples ofchemical substancesclassified as acids,bases or salts

Simple chemical tests to classifychemical substances as acids, bases, orsalts.

7.4 Methods ofpreparation of salts

Preparation of salts using the followingmethods: neutralization, precipitation,acid + salt, and acid + metal.

7.5 Acid-baseindicators

Description of the colours developed byphenolphthalein, litmus and methylorange in dilute acids and dilute bases.

7.6 Determination ofpH of a given solutions.

The nature and use of the universalindicator and pH metre.
Determinationof soil pH is required.
8. Soil conservation

8.1 Principles of soiland waterconservation

Explanation of the concept of soilconservation. Description of activities toconserve soil water and maintain soilfertility; irrigation, mulching, addition oforganic matter or crop rotation.

8.2 Classification of soil nutrients

Macro (major) nutrients;
nitrogen (N), potassium (K), phosphorus (P), calcium(Ca), magnesium (Mg), sulphur (S).

Micro (minor) nutrients:
boron(B),zinc(Zn), molybdenum(Mo),manganese(Mn), copper(Cu),chlorine(Cl), iron(Fe).

8.3 Functions and deficiencysymptoms of nutrients

Description of the deficiency symptomsof the following nutrients in plants:nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus,mangenese and iron.

8.4 Maintenance of soil fertility

Application of organic and inorganicmanures/ fertilizers, crop rotation, covercropping, liming, and green manuring.

8.5 Organic and inorganic fertilizers

Identification and classification oforganic and inorganic fertilizers.Methods of applying fertilizers.

8.6 Depletion of soil resources

Factors which lead to the depletion ofsoil resources: erosion, overgrazing,poor farming methods, dumping of nonbiodegradablewaste on land, improperirrigation and drainage practices, surfacemining and quarrying, deforestation, andexcessive use of fertilizer.
9. Water

9.1 Physical andchemical propertiesof water

Experiments to determine/ demonstrate:
(i) boiling point of water.
(ii) the solvent action of water on avariety of substances.
(iii) presence of dissolved substances
(iv) polar nature of water.
Uses of water.

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9.2 Hardness and softness of water.

Advantages and disadvantages of hardand soft water. Causes of hardness ofwater (Ca++, Mg++, Fe++ ions).Softening hard water (addition ofwashing soda, ion exchange, boiling anddistillation).

9.3 Treatment of water for publicconsumption

Steps involved in the treatment of water for public consumption.
10. Metals and non-metals

10.1 Classification of materials

Classification of materials into metals,semi-metals (metalloids), and nonmetals.
Physical properties of metals, semimetalsand non-metals underconductivity, luster, malleability,ductility, sonority, density, melting pointand tensile strength.

10.2 Uses of metals, semi-metals andnon-metals

Uses of the following elements:
Al, Cu,Fe, Au, C, O2, N2.
Application of semimetals.

10.3 Alloys

Examples of alloys and their constituentelements (steel, bronze, brass).
Uses ofalloys.
Advantages of alloys inmanufacture of certain household items.

11. Exploitation of minerals

Exploitation of the following minerals inGhana: Bauxite, diamond, gold, crudeoil and kaolin.
Negative impact of exploitation ofminerals mentioned and how tominimize the effect.
12. Rusting

12.1 Process of rusting

Conditions necessary for rusting.Experiments to show that air and waterare necessary for rusting. Experiments toshow that salt, dilute acid, dilute baseand heat affect the rate of rusting in iron.

12.2 Prevention of rusting

Methods of preventing rusting: oiling/greasing, painting, galvanizing, tincoating,electroplating, cathodeprotection and keeping the metal dry.
Effectiveness of the various methods ofpreventing rusting.
Items in the homethat undergo rusting.
13. Organic and inorganic compounds

Organic and inorganic compounds

Hydrocarbons (first four members in each group), alkanols (methanol,ethanol, propanol), alkanoic acids (firsttwo members), alkanoates (first twomembers), fats and oils. Functionalgroups, properties and uses of organiccompounds.

13.1 Classification of chemicals as organicand inorganic

Differences between organic andinorganic compounds.Importance of organic chemistry inindustrialization.

13.2 Neutralization and esterterification

Differences between neutralization andesterification. Equations representingneutralization and esterificationreactions.

13.3 Petrochemicals

Sources, application and effects ofpetrochemicals on the environment.The refinery of crude oil. Uses ofpetrochemical such as plastics,pharmaceuticals andagrochemicals.

B. CYCLES

1. Air movement

1.1 Land and sea breeze

Explanation of formation of land and seabreezes. Demonstration of convectionalcurrents using smoke-box and heatedwater with crystals of KMnO4.

1.2 Types of air masses and theirmovement

Trade winds:
Easterlies and Westerlies.Description of the direction ofmovement of major air masses on theearth’s surface.

1.3 Effect of moving air masses

Differences between air masses andstorm.
Effect of moving air masses: spread ofpollutants and effect on climate.
Precautions against effects of storms.
Use of the future’s wheel to trace effectsof spread of pollutants by air massesrequired.
Tornados, hurricanes, typhoons shouldbe mentioned.
2. Nitrogen cycle

2.1 Importance

Drawing and description of the nitrogencycleImportance of the nitrogen cycle toplants and animals.
3. Hydrological cycle

3.1 Distribution of earth’s water

Location of earth’s water (groundwaterand surface water) and how much of it isavailable for human use.
Percentagedistribution of water on the earth’ssurface to be mentioned.

3.2 Hydrological cycle

Processes involved in the hydrologicalcycle using appropriate diagrams.
Relevance of hydrological cycle toplants and animals.

3.3 Sources of water contamination

Main sources of water contamination:domestic waste, trade waste, industrialwaste, radioactive waste, and ‘special’waste such as waste from hospital.

3.4 Effects of water contamination

Water-washed, water-based and insectbasedcarrier diseases

3.5 Water conservation methods

Household water treatment, waste watertreatment, safe water storage, modernand traditional rainwater harvestingsystems.
4. Life cycles of pests and parasites

4.1 Types of pests and parasites

Distinguish between pests and parasites.Common pests of humans and farmanimals (cockroach, housefly, tsetsefly,and mosquito) common endoparasites,tapeworm, liver fluke and round worm),common ectoparasites (tick, bed buglouse, flea, mite).
Common pests andparasites of plants (rice and maizeweevils, mistletoe, dodder and cassythabeetle and stem borers.

4.2 Life cycles of some pests andparasites of human, plants and farmanimals

Life cycles of the following: anendoparasite (tape worm, and guineaworm), pest of humans (Anophelesmosquito), malaria parasite (Plasmodium), a crop pest (weevil).
Control methods of the pests andparasites are required.
5. Crop production

5.1 General principles of cropproduction

Selection of appropriate varieties, siteselection and land preparation, methodsof propagation and planting methods,cultural practices, pest and diseasecontrol, harvesting, processing, storageand marketing.

5.2 Production of crops

Application of all crop productionmentioned in 5.1 to produce a crop,harvest, generate new planting materials,keep records and market.
Precautionsagainst post harvest losses.
Productionshould be limited to the following crops:
vegetables (okro/lettuce/carrot); cereals(maize/millet); legumes(cowpea/groundnut); root crop(cassava); stem tuber (yam).
6. General principles of farm animalproduction:

6.1 Main activities involved in farmanimal production

Selection of suitable breeds, choice ofmanagement system, breeding systemsand care of the young, managementpractices including animal health careand feeding, finishing, processing andmarketing of produce.

6.2 Ruminant production

Types of breeds and their characteristics,management practices, breedingsystems, common pests and diseases andmarketing of products.
Productionshould be limited to cattle, goats andsheep.

6.3 Production of non-ruminant

Main activities outlined in 6.1 toproduce a non-ruminant farm animal.Production limited to poultry, pigs andrabbits.

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C. SYSTEMS

1. Skeletal system

1.1 The mammalian skeleton

Major parts and functions of themammalian skeleton.
Axial skeleton:
skull and vertebralcolumn.
Appendicular skeleton: limbs and thelimb girdles.
Types of joints.
Detailed treatment of the individualbones not required.
2. Reproduction and growth in plants

2.1 Structure of flowers

Parts of a flower and variation in flowerstructure.
Examination of completeflower and half flower with free parts.
Bi-sexual flower ( Flamboyant or Prideof Barbados or Hibiscus sp.).
Uni-sexual flower with free parts ( watermelon, gourd and pawpaw).
Drawing and labelling of complete andhalf flower required.

2.2 Pollination and fertilization

Processes of pollination and fertilization.Adaptations of flowers for pollinationrequired. Formation of fruits and seeds.

2.3 Fruits

Classification of fruits into dry fruits andfleshy or succulent fruits.

2.4 Seeds

Seed structure:
endospermous(monocotyledon) and nonendospermous(dicotyledon)seeds.
Functions of parts ofseeds.

2.5 Seeds and fruits dispersal

Structure of seeds/ fruits and how theyare adapted to their mode of dispersal.Agents of dispersal. Explosivemechanism in fruits of Balsam and Prideof Barbados. Advantages anddisadvantages of seed and fruit dispersal.

2.6 Seed germination

The process and conditions forgermination.Types of germination: hypogeal and epigeal.

2.7 Vegetative (Asexual) reproduction inplants

Formation of new plants from corms,bulbs, setts, rhizomes, cuttings, stolons,runners. Distinction between buddingand grafting. Importance of the methodsof vegetative propagation.
3. Respiratory system

Respiratory system

Explanation of respiration and howenergy is released from food substancesfor living organisms. Importance ofrespiration to living organisms.

3.1 Aerobic and anaerobic respiration

Distinction between aerobic andanaerobic respiration.

3.2 Structure and functions of therespiratory system in mammals

Identification of the respiratory organsof the respiratory system. Functions ofthe trachea, lungs, ribs, intercostalmuscles and diaphragm.

3.3 Inhalation and exhalation

Mechanisms of inhalation andexhalation.

3.4 Problems and disorders of therespiratory system

Lung cancer, asthma, tuberculosis,whooping cough and pneumonia.
Prevention and control of theseproblems and disorders.

3.5 Exchange of respiratory gases inplants.

Description of how respiratory gases[oxygen and carbon (IV) oxide] aretaken in and out of plants.
Importance ofcell (tissue) respiration.
Glycolysis andKreb’s cycle not required.
4. Food and nutrition

4.1 Classes of foodand foodsubstances

Classes of food and food substance andtheir importance: carbohydrates,proteins, lipids, vitamins, mineral saltsand water.
Importance of balanced diet.
Food test for starch protein and lipids.

4.2 Malnutrition

Expl
anation of malnutrition and itseffects.Relationship between diet and certaindiseases – night blindness, high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, lactoseintolerance, and Kwashiorkor.
Importance of roughage.

4.3 Food fortification and enrichment

The essence of food fortification andenrichment.
Determination of body massindex (BMI)

4.4 Health benefits of water

The importance of water to the humanbody.
5. Dentition, feeding and digestion inmammals

5.1 Structure ofdifferent typesof teeth inrelation to theirfunctions

Structure and functions of the teeth.
Drawing and labelling of a verticalsection of a typical tooth.
Differences indentition in humans and other mammalsin relation to diet.

5.2 Care of teethin humans

Proper ways of caring for the teeth toprevent dental problems.

5.3 Digestivesystem ofhuman

Structure and functions of digestivesystems in humans.

6. Transport: Diffusion, osmosis andplasmolysis.

Explanation of diffusion, osmosis, andplasmolysis.
Simple experiments todemonstrate diffusion in air and inliquids;
osmosis in living tissue and innon-living tissue.
Examples of diffusionand osmosis in nature.
7. Excretory system

Excretory system

Explanation of excretion. Distinctionbetween excretion and egestion.

7.1 Excretory organs

Excretory organs (lungs, skin, liver andkidney).
Elimination of products fromthe body.
Structure of the skin and thekidneys.

7.2 Disorders ofurinary systemsin humans

Bed wetting, urine retention, kidneystone prostate and their remedies.
8. Reproductive systemand growth inmammals

8.1 Mammalianreproductivesystem

Structure and function of male andfemale reproductive systems.

8.2 Male and femaleCircumcision

Advantages and disadvantagescircumcision.

8.3 Fertilization,development ofthe zygote andbirth in humans.

The process of fertilization,development of zygote (pregnancy) andbirth.
Formation of twins:
identical,fraternal, and siamese.
Details of cell division and anatomy ofthe embryo not required.

8.4 The process ofbirth and carefor the young

The process of birth in mammals,including pre-natal, post-natal andparental care.

8.5 Problemsassociated withreproduction inhumans

Causes and effects of miscarriage,ectopic pregnancy, infertility,impotence, fibroid, disease infectionsand ovarian cyst.

8.6 Sexuallytransmitted infections(STI’s)

Types: HIV/ AIDS, gonorrhea, syphilis,candidiasis, herpes, chlamydia and theirmode of transmission.
Effects of STI’son the health and reproduction inhumans.

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8.7 Phases of growth and development

Physical and behavioural changesassociated with each phase of humandevelopment:
losing milk teeth anddevelopment of permanent teeth,increase in mass, height, development ofsecondary sexual characters, e.g
menstruation in girls (pre-menstrualsyndrome in some women- accompaniedby violent moods or depression), wetdreams in boys.
Changes in old ageshould include menopause and its associated problems.
9. The circulatory system

9.1 The structure and functionsof the circulatory system ofhumans

The flow of blood through the heart, thelungs and the body of humans.
Functionsof the heart, the veins and the arteries inthe circulatory system.
Detailedstructure of cellular components of theblood vessels not required.

9.2 Composition and functions of blood

The structure of blood cells.
Functionsof blood and blood circulatory system.

9.3 Disordersassociated withthe blood and theblood circulatorysystem

High blood pressure, low bloodpressure and hole-in- heart, leukemia,anaemia.
10. Nervous system

10.1 Structure andthe functionof nervoussystem

Parts of the brain and their functions:fore-brain (cerebrum), mid-brain(cerebellum), hind-brain (medullaoblongata). The spinal cord as part of thecentral nervous system. Details ofelectrical and chemical nature ofimpulse transmission not required.

10.2 Causes and effects of damage tothe central nervous system

Accidents, diseases, drug abuse anddepression.

10.3 Voluntary and involuntary actions

Distinction between voluntary andinvoluntary actions.
Importance of reflexaction. The reflex arc.

10.4 Endocrine system and itsfunctions

Glands producing hormones, normalfunctions of hormones and its effects ofoverproduction and underproduction.
The role of thyroxin, adrenaline,testosterone, oestrogen and insulin.
Importance of iodated salt.

D. ENERGY

1. Forms of energyand energytransformation

Forms of energyand energytransformation

Illustrations with flow charts to show thefollowing energy transformations: solarenergy to chemical in photosynthesis,Chemical energy to electrical energy involtaic cells, solar energy to electricalenergy in solar cells, chemical energy infossil fuel into thermal energy/ electricalenergy, potential energy to kineticenergy in falling object, electrical energyto light energy in bulbs, chemical energyis released from glucose during cellularrespiration.

1.1 Conservation ofenergy andefficiency ofenergyconversion

Explanation of the principle ofconservation of energy. Demonstrationof the principle of transformation byconsidering the transformation ofpotential energy to kinetic energy usinga falling object.Explanation of efficiency 'E' using theexpression:energy input
E = (energy output)/(energy input) x 100%
2. Solar energy

2.1 Uses of solar energy

The main applications of solar energy:
generating electricity, drying materialsand heating substances.

2.2 Application ofsolar energy

Practical activities to demonstrate theapplication of solar energy to:
dryclothes,heat water for bathing, dry crops forpreservation, cook ( boil an egg).
Advantages of solar energy over the useof fossil fuels as source of energy.
3. Photosynthesis

3.1 The process ofphotosynthesis

Conditions of photosynthesis: light,chlorophyll, carbon dioxide and water.
Experiments to show the necessityof light, chlorophyll and carbon dioxidefor photosynthesis.

3.2 Conversion oflight energy tochemical energy

Equations to show how light energy istrapped during the process ofphotosynthesis and converted to glucose.
Test for starch in food and leaf.
4. Electronics

4.1 Claasificationof solidmaterials intoconductors,semiconductorsand insulators

Classify solid materials into conductors,semiconductors and insulators.
P-typeand N-type semiconductors.
Behaviourof P.N junction diode in a d.c and a.celectronic circuit.
Explanation ofrectification.

4.2 Behaviour ofdiscreteelectroniccomponents

A simple electronic circuit comprisinga.c and d.c. source, a resistor and a LightEmitting Diode (LED) in series.
Behaviour of the LED when: the switchis closed, switch is opened, resistor isreplaced with capacitor, capacitor isreplaced with inductor or coil.
Repetition of experiment by replacingthe d.c. source wih an a.c. source.

4.3 Transistor andits uses

Observe an NPN or PNP Transistor andidentify the emitter, the base and thecollector.
The use of transistor as a switch.
Behaviourof NPN transistor in circuitwith the base at the junction of tworesisitors, its collector at the battery andan LED connected to the emitter.

4.4 Amplifer

Application of transistor as an amplifier.
5. Electrical energy

5.1 Nature andsource of staticand currentelectricity

Explanation of the formation of lightingbased on electrostatics. Protection ofbuildings and installations with lightningarrestors.
Sources of static and currentelectricity.
Difference between a.c andd.c and their limitations.

5.2 Electric circuits

Drawing of electric circuit and thefunctions of each component.
Advantages and disadvantages of thecomponents ofcircuit in series andparallel.

5.3 Resistance(R),current (I),potentialdifference (V),and power (P).

Simple calculation of resistance, current,potential difference using the Ohm’slaw.
Simple calculation for electric power.
Importance of power ratings and powerrationing.
Efficient use of electricappliances.

5.4 Electric power generation

Sources of electric power generation:Hydro, thermal, nuclear, solar, wind,tidal and biogas. Basic principlesunderlying the production of electricitye.g. relative motion between a coil and amagnet

5.5 Power transmission

The gadgets and processes involved inthe transmission of power: step-up andstep-down transformers, wiring a plug,household wiring, stabilizers, fuses andearthing.
6. Sound energy

6.1 Sources ofsound

Production of sound from differentinstruments (pipes, rods or strings andpercussions).
Nature of sound: velocity,reflection and refraction.
Differences invelocity of sound in different media(gas, liquid, solid, and vacuum).
Formation of echoes.
Determination ofthe velocity of sound is not required.

6.2 Musical notesand noise

Classification of different sounds asnoise or musical notes (Distinctionbetween musical notes and noise).
Explanation of pitch, loudness andquality of musical notes.

6.3 The human ear

Identification of parts of the human earand description of their functions.
The importance of ear muffs.
7. Light energy

7.1 Reflection andrefraction of light

Explanation of reflection and refractionoflight. Characteristics of images formed by plane mirror.

7.2 The mammalian eye

Structure and functions of the parts ofthe mammalian eye. Eye defects, causesand their correction using theappropriate lenses.

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7.3 Dispersion of light

Explanation of dispersion of light.Formation of rainbow.

7.4 Primary and secondary colours

Distinction between primary (red, green,blue) and secondary (yellow, violet,indigo, orange) colours.
Demonstrationof the behaviour of objects underdifferent coloured light

7.5 Electromagnetic spectrum

Explanation of electromagneticspectrum.
Application of eachcomponent in the spectrum.
Calculationand detailed treatment not required.
8. Heat energy

8.1 Nature and sources of heatenergy

Explanation of why heat is a form ofenergy.
Sources of heat energy.

8.2 Modes of heat transfer

Demonstration of the rate of flow of heatin a metal bar of different materials.
Applications of conduction, convection,and radiation (e.g. vacuum flask andventilation).

8.3 Temperature

Definition of temperature. Concept ofthermal equilibrium between bodies.
Units: degree Celsius(oC) and kelvin(K)in which temperature is expressed.
Fahrenheit should be mentioned.
Usesand limitations of different types ofthermometers e.g.
liquid-in-glass(alcohol and mercury), gas, resistancethermometers.
Advantages anddisadvantages of mercury and alcohol asthermometric liquids.
Clinicalthermometer.
Thermostat and how itworks.

8.4 Thermal expansion

that a body expands when heated.Applications of expansion e.g.thermostats, sagging of electric cable,bursting of inflated hot lorry tyres.

8.5 Change of state of matter

Explanation of how heat causes changeof state of matter.
Latent heat.
Distinction between latent heat of fusionand latent heat of vaporization.
Evaporation;
Application of principlesof evaporation in heat reduction e.g.
regulation of body temperature by theskin, and cooling of water in local claywater pots.
9. Nuclear energy

9.1 Radioactivity

Causes of nuclear instability and howthey emit radiation to become stable.Types of radiation (alpha and betaparticles, and gamma rays).

9.2 Radioisotopes

The nature, production and use ofradioisotopes: food preservation,sterilization of equipment, treatment ofdiseases, pest control and cropimprovement.

9.3 Uses of nuclear energy

Uses of nuclear energy e.g. in theproduction of electricity.

9.4 Protection from theeffects of radioactivity

Harmful effects of radioactivity and howto protect people from the effects e.g.atomic bombs.

9.5 Nuclear waste disposal

Problems associated with the disposal ofnuclear waste.

E. INTERACTIONS OF MATTER

1. Ecosystem

1.1 Basic ecological terms

Explanation of ecological terms:ecosystem, species, population,ecology, ecosphere and community.

1.2 Types of ecosystem and theircomponents

Natural ecosystem: fresh water, marine,estuarine, lake, rainforest, savanna and desert. Artificial ecosystem:farmland,man-made lake, roads.Components of ecosystem: biotic/ living(plants and animals) and abiotic/ nonliving(soil, air, and water). Effects of thecomponents on each other. Ecologicalfactors: biotic (predation andcompetition) and abiotic (climaticfactors, salinity, altitude and slope ofland) Appropriateness of instrumentsused to measure abiotic factors.

1.3 Food chain and food web

Explanation of food chain and food web.
Identification of components of foodchain and food web:
producers (greenplants), primary consumers(herbivores), secondary consumers(carnivores).
Decomposers should bementioned.
2. Atmosphere and climate change

2.1 Regions of atmosphere

Layers of the atmosphere:
troposphere,stratosphere, mesosphere, andthermosphere.
Description of thecharacteristics of each layer in terms ofthickness, temperature, air quality andcomposition, pressure and supportfor human activities.

2.2 Human activities and their effects onthe atmosphere

Effects of human activities on theatmosphere: air transport, defence,industrialization and agriculture.

2.3 Atmospheric pollutants

Sources and effects of the followingmajor pollutants: oxides of lead,nitrogen and sulphur; ozone, halons(carbon and halogen compounds).

2.4 Green house effect

Explanation of ‘greenhouse’ and itseffect: Global warming and climatechange. Possible factors to address theproblem of global warming. Greenhousegases e.g. carbon (IV)oxide andmethane.

2.5 Ozone layer

Ozone layer and how it protects livingorganisms.
Causes and effects of the depletion of the ozone layer.
Sourcesand effects of CFCs on the ozone layer.

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2.6 Acid rain

Identification of acidic pollutants whichcause acid rain.
The effects of acid rainon the environment (damage tobuildings, paints forests etc).
3. Infection and diseases

3.1 Causes of Diseases

Pathogenic:
bacteria, virus, fungi,protozoa and rickettsia.
Nonpathogenic:nutritional, genetic, stressconditions, and poor sanitation.

3.2 Common diseases

Modes of transmission, symptoms,methods of prevention and control ofcommon diseases (air borne, waterrelated, insect borne, food contaminated,nutrition, sexually transmitted,communicable, zoonotic diseases).
4. Magnetism

4.1 Magnetic and non-magnetic materials

Classification of various kinds ofmaterials as magnetic and nonmagnetic.
Permanent and temporarymagnets.
The use of magnetism thefollowing gadgets:
telephone earpiece,loud speakers, microphones, magneticcompass, generation of electricity, fridgedoors, etc.

4.2 Magnetic field

Explanation of magnetic field.
Demonstration of magnetic fields arounda bar magnet using compressor or ironfillings.

4.3 Magnetization and demagnetization

Processes of magnetization anddemagnetization.
The production anduse of electromagnets.
Completedemagnetization of permanent magnet.
5. Force, motion, and pressure

5.1 Force

Explanation of the various types offorces: frictional, viscous, gravitational,weight, electrostatic, magnetic, upthrust,tension and push / pull.

5.2 Archimedes Principle and law offlotation

Explanation of the Archimedes Principleand law of flotation.
Explanation of thefollowing phenomena:
the flight ofbirds and flotation of boats.

5.3 Distance, displacement, speed,velocity, momentum, acceleration

Definition of the terms: distance,displacement, speed, velocity,acceleration, and momentum. Simplecalculations required

5.4 Stability of objects

Explanation of centre of gravity.
Determination of centre of gravity ofrectangular, triangular, and irregularshaped cardboards using the knife edge.
Types of equilibrium:
stable, unstable,neutral equilibrium.
Stability based onthe following activities: Demonstrationof the three types of stability using acone on a flat surface.
Effect of loadinga vehicle on the top carrier or on thebase carrier on the stability of thevehicle.

5.5 Pressure

Definition of pressure.
Effects ofpressure in solids, in liquids and ingases (use of bicycle pump, hydraulics,siphons and water pumps).
6. Safety in the community

6.1 Safe use of appliances in the home

Proper use and handling of householdappliances to prevent accidents at home:
avoidance of overloading of electricsockets, extreme care in using theheating coil in metal/ plastic containers,use of gloves. Precautionary measuresin preventing accidents in the home.

6.2 First aid methods

Demonstration of the following usingmodels: mouth-to-mouth resuscitationmethod, methods of extinguishingdifferent fires, treatment of burns, cutsand electric shocks.

6.3 Hazardous substances

Possible hazards that can occur inworking environment e.g. dust, fumes, toxic substance, corrosive substances,fire, food contamination, harmfulradiation (X-rays), poisonous substancesfrom heated or frozen plastics.
Effects ofhazardous substances on human body,e.g. blindness, burns, nausea, vomiting,and allergies.

6.4 Common hazards in the community

Appraisal of the adequacy of the varioushazards, warning labels on containersand other places. Techniques involved inpreventing fire due to electrical andchemical causes, and bush fires.

Community hazards: diseases, pests andparasites outbreak, insanitary conditions,traffic problems in towns and cities,pollution problems and wastegeneration.

6.5 Roles of health service organizations:(WHO, FAO, UNICEF, Foods andDrugs Board Ghana Health Service,Red Cross, Red Crescent, EPA,Ghana Standards Board, UNPFA,Blue Cross)

Functions of health organizations suchas public health and sanitation, publichealth education, proper siting of refusedumps, provision of waste disposalfacilities, and provision of public toilets.
Factors that promote public health.
Importance of proper sanitation indiseases control.
Efficient town planningand village planning systems, places ofgarbage disposal, good clean roads andstreet connections.
7. Variation and inheritance

7.1 Chromosomes and genes

Chromosomes as bearers of genes/hereditary materials and recessive anddominant characters; genotype andphenotype. Inheritance of a single pairof contrasting characters e.g height(tallness and shortness) to second filialgeneration.
Simple treatment of Mendel’s first lawof inheritance. Application of thesequence of inheritance with respect tocloning of stem cells. DNA Test.Heritable and non-heritablecharacteristics in human.

7.2 Variation

Explanation of variation.
Causes andconsequences of variation: Mutationshould be mentioned as one of thecauses of variation e.g. resistance ofsome organisms to drugs or chemicals,albinism in humans.

7.3 Sex determination and sex-linkedcharacters

Explanation of sex determination atfertilization.
Effects of sex preference onfamily relationship.
Sex- linkedcharacters.

7.4 Blood groups and Rhesus factor

Types of blood groups and Rhesus factorand their importance for marriage, bloodtransfusion and paternity test.
Inheritance of blood groups and Rhesusfactor. Problems in marriage due toincompatibility Rh-factor and how toavoid these problems.

7.5 Sickle cell gene and Sickle cellanaemia

Inheritance of sickle cell gene.
Acquisition of sickle cell anaemia.
Management of sickle cell anaemia.
8. Work and machines

8.1 Work, energy and power

Definition of work, energy and power.
Simple calculations required.

8.2 Simple machines

Identification of simple machines suchas levers, pulleys, wheels, and axle andinclined planes. Classes of levers shouldbe mentioned. Explanation ofmechanical advantage, velocity ratio andefficiency of machines. Simplecalculations required.

8.3 Friction

Definition of friction, effects of frictionand methods of reducing friction.Advantages and disadvantages offriction.
9. Endogenous technology

Endogenous technology

Explanation of endogenous technology.Effects of modern technology on thedevelopment of endogenous technolog.
Inter-dependence of science andtechnology.
Distinction between scienceand technology.
Significance of scienceand technology to the development ofsociety.

9.1 Small scale industries

Small scale industries: raw materials andequipment. Scientific principlesunderlying the following small scaleindustries: soap production, salt making,palm oil production, bread making, andyogurt production.
10. Biotechnology

Biotechnology

Explanation of biotechnology. Examplesof industries based on biotechnology.

10.1 Genetic engineering

Explanation of genetic engineering.
Application in medicine, agriculture,food processing.

10.2 Tissue culture

Explanation of tissue culture.Importance of tissue culture inagriculture.

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Facts about Teachers

● ● ● Teachers Are Great No Controversy.

● ● ● Teachers are like candles, they burn themselves to light others.

● ● ● Teachers don't teach for the money.

● ● ● Every great mind was once taught by some brilliant teachers.

● ● ● Teachers are the second parents we have.

● ● ● If you can write your name, thank your teacher.

Teaching slogans

● ● ● Until the learner learns the teacher has not taught.

● ● ● I hear and forget, I see and remember, I do and know.

● ● ● The good teacher explains. The superior teacher demonstrates. The great teacher inspires.

We provide educational resources/materials, curriculum guide, syllabus, scheme of work, lesson note & plan, waec, jamb, O-level & advance level GCE lessons/tutorial classes, on various topics, subjects, career, disciplines & department etc. for all the Class of Learners