HISTORY

WAEC SYLLABUS ON HISTORY

PREAMBLE

The syllabus will test candidates:
(a) knowledge of their national histories from earliest times to 2000 withemphasis on the relationship between the peoples and states;
(b) intellectual capacity and skills of historical interpretation and analysis;
(c) ability to use acquired skills in relating the past to the present;
(d) appreciation of factors that make for national unity and global understanding;
(e) exposure and appreciation of the similarities and differences in the National,social and political institutions;
(f) knowledge of the main historical developments in West Africa from earliesttimes to 2000;
(g) ability to relate events in their country and West Africa to those of the outsideworld;
(h) ability to present clear, relevant and logical arguments.

To achieve these aims, the examination shall consist of two papers, Papers 1 and 2; bothof which must be taken.

PAPER 1:

This will be a multiple-choice objective test of fifty items. Candidates willbe required to answer all the questions in 1 hour for 40 marks.

PAPER 2:

This will be a 2 hour essay type test containing sets of questions on thehistories of member counties. Each set shall be made up of three sections,Sections A, B and C.
The sections for the sets of questions for Nigeria, Sierra Leone, TheGambia and Liberia shall be on the following periods of their histories:

Section A .. .. .. From the earliest times to the 1800

Section B .. .. .. 19th Century

Section C .. .. .. 1900 – 2000

Those for Ghana will be as follows:

Section A .. .. .. Landmarks of African history: From the earliest timesto AD 1800

Section B .. .. ..Ghana and the wider world: From earliest times toAD1900

Section C .. .. .. Ghana: AD 1900-1991


Each section, for each country, shall have three questions. Candidateswill be required to answer questions on the countries in which theyare taking the examination ie their home countries. They will answerfour questions in all, choosing at least one question from each section. Thepaper will carry 60 marks.


DETAILED SYLLABUS

PAPER 1: For all candidates

WEST AFRICA AND THE WIDER WORLD FROM EARLIEST TIMES TO 2000

1. Historiography and Historical Skills

What is History and why do we study History? Sources of History; Historicalskills (ancient and modern approaches); Prospect of ICT in historical studies.

2. Trans – Saharan Trade

Origin, organization and the effects on the development of West African states.

3. Islam in West Africa

Introduction, spread and effects.

4. European Contact with West Africa

Reasons for their coming, immediate effects and West African reaction

5. Trans-Atlantic slave trade

Origin, organization, effects and suppression.

6. Christian Missionary Activities in West Africa

The suppression of slave trade. Christian Missionary activities and their impacton West Africa.

7. The Scramble for and Partition of West Africa

The Industrial Revolution, Scramble for colonies, Colonial subjugation,Occupation and West African reaction.

8. Colonial Rule in West Africa

Patterns of colonial rule, consolidation of European culture in Africa, colonialeconomy and the underdevelopment of Africa: colonial Africa and the two WorldWars.

9. Problems of independent West African States

Nature of politics: neo-colonialism and economic underdevelopment, unequaldevelopment within states and instability, the Military in West African politics,boundary disputes and threat to West African Unity.

10. West Africa and international organizations

(i) United Nations Organization (U.N.O.)/United Nations (U.N);
(ii) Organization of African Unity (O.A.U)/African Union (A.U.);
(iii) Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS);
Etc.
Membership, aims and objectives, achievements and failures.

PAPER 2: NATIONAL HISTORIES OF THE GAMBIA, GHANA, LIBERIA,NIGERIA AND SIERRA LEONE UP TO 2000

THE GAMBIA
(For candidates in The Gambia only)

SECTION A: THE GAMBIA FROM EARLIEST TIMES TO 2000

1. Historiography and Historical Skills

What is History and why do we study History; sources of History; Historicalskills (ancient and modern approaches); Prospect of ICT in Historical Studies.

2. Origin, political, social and economic organization of the following:

(i) The Wollof;
(ii) Mandinka;
(iii) Fula;
(iv) Jola;
(v) Krio(Aku);
(vi) Serahuli;

3. Indigenous crafts and industries;

Pottery, salt making, iron working, soap making, leather works, weaving,carving, tie and dyeing, boat building – technology; social and economicimportance.

4. Early European contactTrade, Christianity and impact.

5. Introduction, spread and effects of Islam.

6. The Gambia and the trans-Atlantic slave trade:

Origin, organization and effects

SECTION B: THE GAMBIA IN THE 19TH CENTURY

7. Suppression of the slave trade and its effects

Campaigns against kings of Barra, Sabiji and Fuladu.

8. The founding of Bathurst (Banjul)

9. Christian Missionary activities and their impact

10. The Soninke-Marabout wars, jihadist leaders

Colonial government’s reaction to religious disturbances, 1850 to 1880.

11. Resistance to European Colonialism

Foday Kombo Sillah, Foday Kabbah Dumbuya and Musa Molloh Baldeh

SECTION C: THE GAMBIA FROM 1900 TO 2000

12. British Colonial administration

Indirect Rule and the role of traditional rulers

13. Economic and social developments in the colonial period

(i) agriculture; attempts at diversification,
(ii) transportation and communication,
(iii) education,
(iv) health services.

14. Development of local Government

15. The struggle for and regaining of independence

(i) Emergence and role of trade unions and political parties,
(ii) Internal government,
(iii) Independence negotiations,
(iv) Senegambia relations before independence.

16. Development after independence

(i) attempt at national government,
(ii) the Republican Constitution,
(iii) parliamentary government; multiparty politics, political realighnment
(iv) social and economic developments,
(v) Senegambia relations,
(vi) 1981 attempted coup d’etat,
(vii) 1994 coup d’etat – AFPRC,(viii) The Second Republic – 1996 to 2000

17. The Gambia and the:

(i) United Nations Organization (U.N.O.)/United Nations (U.N);
(ii) Commonwealth of Nations/ The Commonwealth;
(iii) Organization of African Unity (O.A.U)/African Union (A.U.);
(iv) Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS).

GHANA(For candidates in Ghana only)

SECTION A: LANDMARKS OF AFRICAN HISTORY (FROM EARLIESTTIMES TO 1800)

1. Introduction to African History

a) History as a subject of study
b) Sources of African History
c) Methods of African History

2. African pre-history up to 500 B.C

a) Hunters and gatherers, etc.
b) Beginning of village/community life.

3. Civilizations of North Africa from 3000B.C To A.D 1800

a) Pharaonic Egypt
i. emergence of Lower and Upper Kingdoms.
ii. development of:
- Farming technology (irrigation),
- Metal technology (ship building),
- Engineering technology (pyramids).
iii. development of:
African arts and sciences, writing, mathematics, commerce,military organization, architecture etc.
iv. Introduction of Christianity and Islam
b) Northern Africa-Berber
(i) indigenous civilization.
(ii) economy, metal technology etc.,
(iii) external relations with the Phoenicians /Greeks,Carthaginians, Romans and Arabs.

4. Civilizations of the Horn, East and Central Africa

(a) Axum:
(i) Rise of Axum- factors responsible
(ii) Major achievements in Arts, Technology etc.
(iii) Introduction of Christianity and effects.
(b) Emergence of Ancient Ethiopia (Abyssinia); rise of Solomonic lineof Kings, conflicts – internal and external
(c) Bantu Civilization
(i) Definition, origin and spread
(ii) Study of examples of Bantu complex societies:
(a) Zimbabwe,
(b) Mapungubwe
(c) Kisale;
(d) Swahili Civilization of the East African Coast:
(i) Definition and origins of Swahili Civilization
(ii) Economy
(iii) Metal Technology
(iv) Architecture
(v) City Based Civilization
(vi) The Swahili Language

5. West Africa – Civilizations and Cultures

(a) General characteristics of West African Sudanese states and kingdoms:
Location, social and political organizations, economic, religious,technological developments, citing examples from:
(i) Ghana
(ii) Mali
(iii)Songhai
(iv) Kanem-Bornu
(v) Hausa States
(b) The trans –Saharan trade: origin, organisation and effects on thedevelopment of the states.
(c) Forest and Coastal States:General characteristics of West African Coastal States and kingdoms(Ife, Oyo, Asante, Mende-Temne, Dahomey, Igbo):
social, politicaland economic organization, intra-regional trade, religious andtechnological developments.

SECTION B: GHANA AND THE WIDER WORLD; FROM EARLIEST TIMESTO AD.1900

6. Introduction to the History of Ghana

(a) Sources and Methods
(b) Pre-history of Ghana -50,000B.C. – A.D 1700
(i) Hunters and Gatherers
(ii) Kintampo culture- farmers and village builders (2000 BC – AD500)
(iii)The first townsmen in Ghana: Begho, Bono-Manso etc.(AD1000-1700)

7. The peopling of Ghana

(a) Peoples of Ghana
(i) Northern zone
(ii) Forest zone
(iii)Coastal zone
(b) The rise of states and kingdoms:
General characteristics i.e. factors for rise, attainment level etc.
(i) Northern zone e.g. Dagomba, Manprugu, Gonja and Nanumba.
(ii) Forest zone e.g. Denkyira, Akwamu,Akyem, Asante.
(iii)Coastal zone e.g. Fante, Ga, Anlo.

8. Social, Cultural, Political and Economic Developments in Ghana inthe Sixteenth Centuries

(a) Political systems:
(i) Centralized communities e.g. Asante, Dagomba;
(ii) Non- centralized communities e.g Sisala, Chamba
(iii) Theocratic communities e.g. Ga-Adangbe, Guan
(iv) Comparison of the three systems.
(b) Social organizations- religion, kinship systems e.g. matriclans andpatriclans:
festivals, rites and ceremonies associated with variousstages in the life cycle (marriage, birth, puberty and death)
(c) History of medicine as practised by various peoples:
Some examples of medicinal items and uses (botanical and zoologicalaspects of medicine)
(d) Pre- colonial technological advancement: brass casting, gold working,pottery etc. Their
(i) processes
(ii) products
(iii) importance
(e) Art forms e.g. Adinkra symbols, textiles, Kete, Adowa dance forms.
(f) Economy:
(i) subsistence economy: fishing, farming, craftworks,hunting and gathering.
(ii) exchange economy
- local trading e.g. salt, kola nuts
- long distance trading e.g. leather, gold, beads
(iii) importance of long distance trade

9. European contact

(a) Europeans on Ghana Coast
(i) reasons for their coming
(ii) immediate effects
(b) Changing patterns of trade: AD1500- 1900:
(i) trade with Europeans- gold, ivory etc.
(ii) Atlantic slave trade- nature volume and contributions to thedevelopment of the Americas,
(iii) effects of slave trade on Ghana;
(c) The Scramble for and partition of West Africa.
(i) causes
(ii) Berlin Conference
(iii) major recommendations.
(iv) the effects on West Africa.

10. Social and Political Development AD 1500- 1900

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(a) Activities of the Christian missionaries:
(i) opening of churches and setting up of schools and colleges.
(ii) establishment of medical facilities
(iii) literacy work: translating the Bible into local languages,providing dictionaries, reducing local languages intowriting etc.
(b) Political Developments:
(i) Effects of European presence on local politics
(ii) The Bond of 1844
(iii) Aborigines Rights Protection Society.

SECTION C: GHANA (AD 1900-1991)

11. Social, Economic and Political Developments (AD 1900- 1957)

(a) Nationalist activities and political changes from 1900 to 1957.
(i) Early Nationalist organizations: Aborigines RightsProtection Society (ARPS), National Congress of BritishWest Africa (NCBWA), Gold Coast Youth Conference,West African Youth League.
(ii) Early Nationalists e.g. John Mensah Sarbah, J. CaselyHayford, Kobina Sekyi.
(iii) Later Nationalist Parties:
United Gold Coast Convention (UGCC)
Convention People’s Party (CPP)
National Liberation Movement (NLM)
(iv) Later Nationalists: J.B. Danquah, Kwame Nkrumah, PaaGrant
(b) Social and Economic Developments:
(i) education
(ii) health and sanitation: etc.
(iii) religion
(iv) agriculture- cocoa, oil palm, copra, coffee, fishing; etc.
(v) transport and communications: railways, roads, harbours,airways, telegraph and postal services and mass media.
(vi) mining – gold, diamond, bauxite, manganese, etc
(vii) timber and other forest products.
(viii) the work of Sir Gordon Guggisberg;

12. Post-Independence Ghana

(a) The Nkrumah Era
(i) Social developments
(ii) Economic developments
(iii) Political developments
- contributions to African unity and world peace
- development of one party state.
(iv) The fall of Nkrumah regime;
(b) Post Nkrumah Era:
(i) causes of rapid changes of government
(ii) social and economic character of each regime:
- National Liberation Council (N.L.C)
- The Second Republic 1969- 1972
- The National Redemption Council (NRC) & TheSupreme Military Council Era (S.M.C) 1972-1979.
- The Uprising of 1979 (May 15, and June 4) and theArmed Forces Revolutionary Council (AFRC).
- The Third Republic 1979- 1981;
- Provisional National Defence Council (PNDC) 1981-1991.

13. Ghana in the Comity of Nations

(a) Contributions, benefits and challenges of Ghana’s membership of
(i) United Nations Organization (UNO); / United Nations (UN)
(ii) Commonwealth of Nations;
(iii)Non-Aligned Movement (NAM);
(iv) Organization of African Unity (OAU);
African Union (AU)
(v) Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS);
(vi) African, Caribbean and Pacific Countries (ACP/EEC)

LIBERIA(For candidates in Liberia only)

SECTION A: LIBERIA FROM EARLIEST TIMES TO 1800

1. Historiography and Historical skills

What is History and why we learn history; sources of History; historical skills(ancient and modern approaches); prospect of ICT in Historical Studies.

2. Land and People

a. Main geographical zones of Liberia.
b. Demographic, Ethnic, Linguistic distribution (Kru, Bassa, Krahn, Gio, Mano.
Grebo, Lorma, Kpelle, Belle, Mandingo, Vai, Kissi, Gbandi, Gola,Dey,Mende).

3. Migration

a. Migration due to war, pestilence, drought, overpopulation.
b. Introduction, spread and effects of Islam.

4. Kingdoms, Chiefdoms and Confederacies:

a. Political Institutions.
b. Social, religious and cultural activities (weaving, blacksmithing).

5. European Contacts – Liberia (economic and social effects).

6. Trans Atlantic Slave Trade (origin, organization, effects, suppression)

SECTION B: LIBERIA IN THE 19TH CENTURY

7 The effects of Colonization movements on Liberia.

a. The coming of migrants from the USA, the Caribbean and the Recaptives toLiberia.
b. The establishment and administration of settlements by the AmericanColonization Society and other Organizations.
c. Christian missionary activities and impact.

8. The formation and significance of the Commonwealth of Liberia:

a. Problems, conflicts and cooperation between the settlers and indigenous people.
b. Territorial expansion and its effects.

9. Declaration of Independence:

a. The reasons for and the significance of the Declaration of Independence.
b. The Constitution of 1847 and its importance.
c. The origin and development of political parties.
d. The administration of Joseph .J. Roberts
e. Edward J. Roye and the ruling class.

10. Liberia’s relationship with the outside world:

- Diplomatic recognition by Britain, France etc.

11. Problems of land acquisition.

a. Encroachment by the British and French beyond the agreed colonial boundaries.
b. Expansion into the interior

SECTION C: LIBERIA FROM 1900 TO 2000

12. Political Development

a. The roles of Presidents David Coleman and Arthur Barclay.b. The origin and development of political parties up to 2000.c. Exportation of labour; the Fernando Po crisis, intervention of the League ofNations.

13. The administration of Edwin Barclay, William V.S Tubman, William R. TolbertJnr.

14. 1980 coup d’etat and Samuel K. Doe

a. Beginning of the civil war (ECOWAS intervention/ ECOMOG activities).b. Interim government – 1990- 1994; 1994 – 1997.c. Administration of Charles Taylor (1997-2000).

15. Economic development and the spread of education.

16. Liberia and the

a. United Nations Organization (UNO)b. Organization of African Unity (OAU)/ African Union (AU)c. Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)d. Mano River Union (MRU)

NIGERIA(For candidates in Nigeria only)

SECTION A: NIGERIA FROM EARLIEST TIMES TO 1800

1. Historiography and historical skills

What is History and why we study History; sources of History; Historical skills(ancient and modern approaches); Prospect of ICT in Historical Studies.

2. Land and peoples of Nigeria:

Main geographical zones in Nigeria: impact of the environment on humanactivities e.g. hunting, fishing, farming, etc.

3. Centers of ancient civilization:

Nok, Ife, Igbo Ukwu, Benin.

4. (a) Centralized and non-centralized states:

(i) Kanem and Borno;
(ii) Hausa;
(iii) Nupe;
(iv) Oyo;
(v) Benin;
(vi) Igbo;
(vii) Efik;
(viii) Tiv.
(b) Inter-group relations: economic activities, intermarriages, bilingualism, etc.
(c) Impact of migrations; wars and politics on inter- group relations.

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5. Indigenous crafts and industries;

Pottery, salt making, iron working, gold mining, soap making, leather works,weaving, carving, bronze casting, tie and dyeing, bead making, boat building –
technology; social and economic importance.

6. External Influences

(a) Contact with North Africa: trans-Saharan trade, Islam(Borno andHausaland) and impact
(b) Early European contact with coastal states; trade, Christianity and impact

7. Nigeria and the trans-Atlantic slave trade

Origin, organization and effects

SECTION B: NIGERIA IN THE 19TH CENTURY

8. The Sokoto Caliphate:

Establishment, administration, relations with its neighbours and impact of theSokoto jihad on Nigeria.

9. Borno under the Shehus:

The emergence of El-Kanemi, developments under El-Kanemi and Shehu Umar,development under the later Shehus, the fall of Borno.

10. Christian Missionary Activities – activities, impact.

11. Yorubaland in the 19th century

Era of Ibadan dominance; increased British pressure on Yorubaland;

12. Benin in the 19th century

13. The first phase of the British conquest of Nigeria: 1851-1900

SECTION C: NIGERIA FROM 1900 TO 2000

14. The second phase of the British conquest in Nigeria 1900- 1960

a. The early phase 1900-1914: the amalgamation of 1914 and its significance
b. Later phase 1914-1960
(i) central administration;
(ii) indirect rule;
(iii) the colonial economy;
(iv) social developments.

15. The decolonization process in Nigeria, 1922-1960

Origin of nationalism, nationalist movements after the Second World War, theroad to and the attainment of independence.

16. Nigeria since independence

a. the First Republic, 1960-1966;
b. the coups d’etat, military rule, civil war and reconstruction, 1966-1975;
c. the military administration - Murtala/Obasanjo regime of 1975-1979;
d. the Second Republic, 1979-1983;
e. the return of military rule - Buhari/Idiagbon regime, 1983-1984
f. The Ibrahim Babangida regime, 1985-1993
g. Interim national government and Abacha regime, 1993-1998;
h. Transition to fourth republic and Olusegun Obasanjo administration;
i. Emerging issues up to 2000: poverty, corruption, youth unemployment,religious crisis, terrorism, etc.

17. Nigeria and the

a. United Nations Organization (U.N.O.)/United Nations (U.N);
b. Commonwealth of Nations;
c. Organization of Unity (O.A.U)/African Union (A.U.);
d. Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS);
e. Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).

18. Global issues

West Africa in Diaspora; Racism, Debt relief and International aids;
Peacekeeping and socio-political interest of developed societies;
World peace(armament, nuclear science); Millennium Development Goals (MDGS).

SIERRA LEONE(For candidates in Sierra Leone only)

SECTION A: SIERRA LEONE FROM EARLIEST TIMES TO 1800

1. Historiography and Historical Skills

What is History and why do we study History; sources of History, Historical skills(ancient and modern approaches);
Prospect of ICT in Historical Studies.

2. Origin, political, social and economic organization of the following:

(i) Temne;
(ii) Mende;
(iii) Limba;
(iv) Loko;
(v) Susu;
(vi) Mandingo;
(vii) Sherbro/Bullom.

3. Indigenous crafts and industries:

Potters, salt making, iron working, gold mining, soap making, leather works,weaving, carving, tie and dyeing, boat building –
technology;
social and economicimportance.

4. Mane Invasions

5. Early European contactTrade, Christianity and impact.

6. Introduction spread and effects of Islam.

7. Sierra Leone and the trans-Atlantic slave trade:

Origin, organization and effects

SECTION B: SIERRA LEONE IN THE 19TH CENTURY

8. The founding of the settlement colony of Sierra Leone to the declaration ofthe Crown Colony.

9. The emergence of the Krio and their subsequent decline

10. Christian Missionary activities and their impact

11. The role of the colonial government in contacts between the colony and thehinterland.

12. The activities of Samori Toure in Sierra Leone

13. Declaration of the Protectorate and the Hut Tax War

SECTION C: SIERRA LEONE FROM 1900 TO 2000

14. The administration of the colony and constitutional developments up to 1947

15. The administration of the Protectorate:

Indirect rule and the Protectorate Assembly

16. Economic and social developments in the colonial period

(i) Agriculture
(ii) Mining
(iii) Transportation and communication
(iv) Education
(v) Health.

17. Political and constitutional developments from 1947 to the regaining ofindependence in 1961.

18. Sierra Leone from independence to 2000:

(i) The era of the Margais – 1961
(ii) Military rule – National Reformation Council,
(iii) The administration of Siaka Stevens,
(iv) The administration of Joseph Saidu Momoh – outbreak of the rebel war.
(v) Military rule – National Provisional Ruling Council,
(vi) The administration of Ahmed Tejan Kabbah up to 2000.

19. Sierra Leone and the

(i) United Nationals Organization (U.N.O.)/United Nations (U.N);
(ii) Commonwealth of Nations;
(iii) Organization of African Unity (O.A.U.)/African Union (A.U.);
(iv) Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS);
(v) Manu River Union (MRU).

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