GOVERNMENT

WAEC SYLLABUS ON GOVERNMENT

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

This syllabus aims at assessing the candidates’ ability to:
(a) define the concepts of Government and show their understanding of its principles,institutions and processes.
(b) recognize their role as an informed citizens and their contributions towards theachievement of national development.
(c) evaluate the successes, failures and problems of governments in West Africa.
(d) analyse the constitutional developments and processes of colonial and post - independentgovernment.
(e) appreciate the role of their country as a member of the international community.

SCHEME OF THE EXAMINATIONS


There will be two papers – Paper 1 and Paper 2, both of which must be taken. Papers 1 and 2 will becomposite and will be taken at one sitting.

PAPER 1:

This will consist of fifty multiple-choice objective questions drawn from the entiresyllabus. Candidates will be required to answer all the questions in 1 hour for 40 marks.

PAPER 2:

This will be a 2-hour essay type test consisting of two sections, Sections A and B asfollows:

Section A: Elements of Government

Shall contain five questions out of which candidates shall be required to attempt any two.

Section B: Political and Constitutional Developments in West Africa andInternational Relations

Shall contain sets of five questions each; one set for one member country. Eachcandidate is to answer two questions chosen from the set on the country in which he/sheis taking the examination.

The paper shall carry 60 marks.


DETAILED SYLLABUS

SECTION A: ELEMENTS OF GOVERNMENT


1. MEANING AND SCOPE OF THE SUBJECT MATTER – GOVERNMENT


(i) Government as an institution of the state. Definition of state, features, structure and functions.
(ii) Government as a process or art or governing.
(iii) Government as an academic field of study – reasons for studying government.

2. BASIC CONCEPTS AND PRINCIPLES OF GOVERNMENT


(i) Basic concepts – State, *Society, *Nation, Power, Authority, Legitimacy,Sovereignty, Democracy, Political Culture and Socialization, Communalism,Feudalism and oligarchy, *Liberalism, Socialism, Communism, Capitalism,Fascism, Aristocracy, Totalitarianism.Meaning and features.
(ii) Basic principles – Rule of Law, Fundamental Human Rights, Separation ofPowers/Checks and Balances, Constitutionalism, Political participation,Representative Government, Centralization and Decentralization – (DelegatedLegislation, Devolution and Decentralization).

3. CONSTITUTIONS


(i) Definition and Sources
(ii) Functions
(iii) Types and Features, (Written and Unwritten, Rigid and Flexible).

4. ORGANS OF GOVERNMENT


The Executive, the Legislature and the Judiciary – Judicial Independence.
(Types,Structure, Composition/membership; Functions; powers and limitations).

5. STATE STRUCTURE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF GOVERNMENT


(a) Types - Unitary, Federal, Confederal, Presidential or Non-parliamentary,Parliamentary or Cabinet, Monarchical and Republican.
Meaning, types, features, merits and demerits.

6. CITIZENSHIP


Meaning, mode of acquisition, rights, duties and obligations of individuals in the state.
Means of safeguarding rights of citizens.

7. POLITICAL PARTIES AND PARTY SYSTEMS


(i) Political Parties – definition, organization/structure, and functions.(ii) Party Systems – definition, types, merits and demerits.

8. PRESSURE GROUPS, PUBLIC OPINION AND MASS MEDIA


(i) Pressure Groups – definition, types, mode of operation and functions;
(ii) Public opinion – definition, formation, Measurement and importance;
(iii) Mass Media – definition, roles and impact.

9. THE ELECTORAL SYSTEMS, PROCESSES AND ELECTORALMANAGEMENT BODY


(a) Electoral Systems and Processes
(i) Election- Meaning and purpose of elections.
(ii) Franchise – meaning, and limitations.
(iii) Types, advantages and disadvantages of Electoral Systems.
(b) Electoral Management Body – definition, function, problems/constrains.

10. PUBLIC/CIVIL SERVICE ADMINISTRATION


(i) Public/Civil Service – Meaning, Structure, Characteristics and Functions.
(ii) Public/Civil Service Commission –meaning and Functions.
(iii) Public Corporations – definition, purposes, functions, control, challenges, needfor commercialization and privatization.
(iv) Local Governments – Meaning, structure, Purposes, Functions, Sources ofrevenue, control and problems.

SECTION B: POLITICAL AND CONSTITUTIONAL DEVLEOPMENTS INWEST AFRICA AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS


11. PRE-COLONIAL POLITICAL SYSTEM OF CANDIDATES’ RESPECTIVECOUNTRIES

The Structural Organization of the following:(a) Nigeria - Hausa/Fulani, the Yoruba and the Igbo.(b) Ghana - The Akan and the Talensi.(c) Sierra Leone - The Mende and Temme.(d) The Gambia - The Wolof, Mandingo and Jola.(e) Liberia - The Vai and the Kru.

12. COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION

(i) The Policy and Structure of the British Colonial Administration – Crown Colony,Protectorate and Indirect Rule.(ii) The Policy of French Colonial Administration – Assimilation and Association(Loi Cadre).(iii) Impact, Advantages and disadvantages of Colonial Rule.

13. NATIONALISM IN CANDIDATES’ RESPECTIVE COUNTRIES

(i) Nationalism: Meaning, factors and effects.(ii) Key Nationalist leaders/movements and their contributions.

14. CONSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENTS IN CANDIDATES’ RESPECTIVECOUNTRIES

(i) Pre-Independence Constitutions -
(a) Nigeria (features) - Clifford 1922
Richards 1946
Macpherson 1951
Littleton 1954
(b) Ghana (features, merits and demerits) -
Clifford 1916
Guggisberg 1925
Burns 1946
Arden Clarke 1951
Nkrumah 1954
(c) Sierra Leone (features, merits and demerits) -
Slatter 1924
Stevenson 1947
Beresford Stooke 1951
The 1956 and 1958Constitutions.

(d) The Gambia (features, merits and demerits) -

The 1947, 1951,1954, 1960, 1962 and 1963Constitutions.

(ii) Post-Independence Constitutions – Features

(a) Nigeria - Independence Constitution, 1960

Republican Constitution 1963

The 1979 and 1989 Constitutions

1999 Constitution - Origin, features, strength andWeaknesses.

(b) Ghana - Independence Constitution, 1957Republican Constitution 1960
2nd Republican Constitution 1969

3rd Republican Constitution 1979

4th Republican Constitutions 1992.

(c) Sierra Leone – Independence Constitution 1961

Republican Constitution 1971

The 1978 and 1991 Constitutions,

(d) The Gambia - Independence Constitution 1965

Republican Constitution 1970.

2nd Republican Constitution 1997

(e) Liberia - Independence/Republican Constitution 1947

2nd Republican Constitution 1985


15. DEVELOPMENT OF MAJOR POLITICAL PARTIES IN THE CANDIDATES’RESPECTIVE COUNTRIES

- Nigeria
- Sierra Leone
- The Gambia
- Liberia
Formation, Objectives, Sources of Finance, Achievements and Failures

16. MILITARY RULE IN THE CANDIDATES’ RESPECTIVE COUNTRIES.

- Nigeria
- Ghana;
- Sierra Leone
- The Gambia
- Liberia
Causes, effects and various military regimes.

17. FEDERAL/UNITARY SYSTEMS OF GOVERNMENT IN WEST AFRICA

- Nigeria
- Sierra Leone
- The Gambia
- Liberia
Origin, Factors, Structure, Features and Problems

18. FOREIGN POLICIES OF THE CANDIDATES’ RESPECTIVE COUNTRIES

- Nigeria
- Ghana
- Sierra Leone
- The Gambia
- Liberia
Definitions, Factors, objectives, advantages and disadvantages.

19. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

The United Nations Organizations (UNO),
The Commonwealth of Nations,
African Union (AU) - NEPAD,
The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS).
Origin, aims/objectives, achievements and problems.

WASSCE GOVERNMENT SUGGESTED READING LIST

S/NAUTHORTITLE

1 .

ADU BOAHEN, A

Ghana Evolution and Change in the 19th and 20th Centuries

2 .

SHILLINGTON K.

Ghana and the Rawlings Factor

3 .

HODGKIN T.

African Political Parties

4 .

GARBRAH H. K.

Foreign Policies of Major Countries, Subject Publications, New Delhi

5 .

ADDAE P. G.

Senior Secondary School Government Bks. 1 & 2

6 .

NOFIU S. O. A.

A – ONE in Government

7 .

ECHIEFU S. M

Modern Government

8 .

APPADORAI A.

The Substance of Politics

We provide educational resources/materials, curriculum guide, syllabus, scheme of work, lesson note & plan, waec, jamb, O-level & advance level GCE lessons/tutorial classes, on various topics, subjects, career, disciplines & department etc. for all the Class of Learners

9 .

PRICE J. H.

Political Institutions in West Africa

10.

LEEDS C. A.

Political Studies

11.

AMOA G. Y.

Groundwork of Government in West Africa

12.

DARE AND OYEWOLE

A Textbook of Government for Senior Secondary School

13.

OYEDIRAN AND CO.

Government for Senior Secondary School.

14.

FRANCIS ADIGWE

Essentials of Government

15.

DENNIS AUSTIN

Politics in Ghana 1946-1960

16.

PRAH ISAAC

Government for Senior Secondary School


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We provide educational resources/materials, curriculum guide, syllabus, scheme of work, lesson note & plan, waec, jamb, O-level & advance level GCE lessons/tutorial classes, on various topics, subjects, career, disciplines & department etc. for all the Class of Learners