GHANAIAN LANGUAGES

WAEC SYLLABUS ON GHANAIAN LANGUAGES

PREAMBLE

The Ghanaian Language syllabus is based on the Teaching Syllabus which seeks to equipstudents with knowledge and skills to communicate effectively, appreciate cultures and values ofthe society and integrate smoothly into speech/language community. The syllabus is thus meantto examine candidates’ communicative competence and ability to appreciate their culturalenvironment for peaceful co-existence and national development.

AIMS

The syllabus is designed to encourage students to improve their reasoning skills, and improvetheir ability to contribute to the solution of the problems of a dynamic society. Aspects to beexamined consist of Phonology, Reading Comprehension, Writing, Literature and Customs andInstitutions of the various Ghanaian ethnic groups and their languages.

ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVES

Language:
Candidates will be tested on their ability to:
(1) understand, arrange and present facts, ideas and opinions in a coherent manner.
(2) evaluate information in reading material and select what is relevant to specificpurposes.
(3) articulate, experience and express what is felt and what is imagined.
(4) recognize implicit meaning and attitudes.
(5) recognize the sound and structural patterns of the language.
Literature:
Candidates will be tested on their ability to:
(1) understand literary texts and have a deeper meaning of themes,characterizationand attitudes.
(2) recognize and appreciate ways in which authors/performers use language toachieve their effects (e.g. diction, syntax, imagery, plot, etc.)
(3) communicate a sensitive and personal response to what is read.

SCHEME OF EXAMINATION


There will be two papers: Papers 1 and 2, both of which must be taken.

PAPER 1:

Language Skill Development (3 hours)This paper will consist of four sections: A, B, C and D and will carry 120 marks.

SECTION A:

Composition 40 (marks)Four topics for composition will be set and candidates will be required to write anessay of about 450 to 500 words on one of them for 40 marks. The following types ofwriting will be tested:

Narrative
Descriptive (Instructions/Directions/Processes)Argument Discussion Speech writing

Letter writing
Some of the topics could be selected from unit three of Year 4 of the Teachingsyllabus.Topics for this section may include what candidates have covered under Customs andInstitutions and candidates’ essays will be expected to reflect the knowledge they haveacquired in this area.Candidates will be expected to display maturity in their use of language (e.g. figures ofspeech, choice of words, etc.) and their organization of facts and ideas.

SECTION B: Translation 20 (marks)

A prose passage of between 150 and 200 words will be set in English for translationinto the chosen Ghanaian Language. Passages will be set to cover various registers andthe types of writing will include:

Narrative, Descriptive, Explanation of ideas, Speeches,Directions, Instructions etc.Some of the topics could be selected from unit three of Year 4 of the Teachingsyllabus.

The section shall carry 20 marks.

SECTION C: Comprehension 20 (marks)

A prose passage or verse of about 300 to 350 words will be set.Ten questions will beset to cover the following areas: Content, Vocabulary/Idioms, Figures of speech,Shades of meaning, Inference, Extrapolation, Summary (Title/Main points, etc.)Candidates will be required to answer all the questions for 20 marks.
Passages for comprehension could be selected based on some of these topicsrecommended in unit three of Year 4 of the Teaching syllabus.

SECTION D: LANGUAGE

In this section items will be set to cover phonology, and syntax .The section shall carry 40 marks.

N.B.A detailed syllabus for Section D appears at the end of thissyllabus.


PAPER 2 - (2½ hours)

This paper will consist of two sections: A and B

SECTION A: Oral Literature/Customs & Institutions 20 (marks)

Two questions will be set and candidates will be expected to answer only one of themfor 20 marks. This section will test candidates’ knowledge of the following:
Marriage and divorce
Taboos and oaths
Naming, puberty and initiation rites
Chieftaincy and Traditional Administration
Traditional judicial procedure
Proverbs
Dirges
Riddles
Puzzles
Historical narratives
Folktales
Lyrics
Lullabies
Libation texts
Drum/Xylophone/Horn texts
Occupational songs
War songs
Play songs
Candidates’ work at this level should show in-depth
knowledge
and analysis of the various aspects of oral literature/customs and institutions.

SECTION B: Written Literature

This section will be divided into three parts: I, II and III.

Each part shall carry 20 marks.

Part I: Prose
One set book will be prescribed for detailed study for three years. Two questions willbe set on the book and candidates will be required to study and answer one of thequestions.

Part II: Drama
One set book will be prescribed for detailed study for three years. Two questions willbe set on the book and candidates will be required to study and answer one of thequestions.

Part III: Poetry
One set book will be prescribed for detailed study for three years. Two questions willbe set on the book and candidates will be required to study and answer one of thequestions.

NB:
This paper will test candidates’ knowledge of theme, incident, plot, context,characterization, appreciation, stylistic devices, etc.

DETAILED SYLLABUS FOR LANGUAGE

I. Phonology

(a) Vowels - Length, Nasalization, Assimilation, Elision,Diphthongs/Vowel sequence/ Vowel Harmony
(b) Consonants - Assimilation, Mutation, Consonant gemination (whereapplicable);Secondary Articulation e.g.Labialization, Palatalization
(c) Tone - Level, Carriers,Tonal Structure (Intonation),Lexical and grammatical use of tones.
(d) Syllable - Types and Structure

II Syntax

(a) Sentences:
(i) Types
(ii) Functions
(iii) Structure
(b) Clauses:
(i) Types
(ii) Functions
(iii) Structure
(c) Phrases:
(i) Types
(ii) Functions
(iii) Structure
(a) Word Classes
(i) Nouns (vi) Conjunctions
(ii) Verbs (vii) Postposition
(iii) Adverbs (viii) Determiners
(iv) Adjectives (ix) Particles
(v) Pronouns (x) Auxilliaries
(b) Word Formation
(c) Direct/Indirect Speech
(d) Agreement (concord)

ALLOCATION OF MARKS

PAPER 1

SECTION A - Essay - 40 marks
SECTION B - Translation - 20 marks
SECTION C - Comprehension - 20 marks
SECTION D - Language Structure 40 marks
120 marks
(a) Phonology - 20
(b) Syntax - 20

PAPER 2

SECTION - Oral Literature/Customs & Institutions 20 marks
SECTION B - Written Literature/Literary Appreciation
Part I (Prose) - 20 marks
Part II (Drama) - 20 marks
Part III (Poetry) - 20 marks
80 marks

Total Paper 1 & 2 = 200 marks

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