GEOGRAPHY

WAEC SYLLABUS ON GEOGRAPHY

PREAMBLE

The Geography syllabus is designed to evaluate candidates’ knowledge of the features of theearth’s crust (internal and external), the spatial spread of the physical and human features, theinteractions that exist between man and these spatial features, the changes that occur over spaceas well as the effects of those changes on man with a view to maintaining sustainability inman’s ecosystem. This examination syllabus is based on the assumption that not less than threehours of teaching per week will be allocated to the subject.

OBJECTIVES

The examination will test the candidates’ ability to:
(i) explain the concepts of differential character and the spatial relationshipsof the surface features of the earth;
(ii) explain the concepts of man- environment relations (i.e. to analyse the life of manwithin his physical and cultural environments and to explain their interactions);
(iii) demonstrate a basic knowledge of the nature and functioning of physical and humanenvironments, particularly an understanding of their inter-relationships and the resultingissues;
(iv) organize and formulate principles according to acquired geographical concepts and thenapply these principles to interpret and analyze spatial problems in the immediate andwider environments;
(v) demonstrate skills and techniques for accurate, orderly and objective geographicalinvestigations to be carried out both in the classrooms and in the immediateenvironment;
(vi) communicate geographical ideas effectively through reports, graphs, charts, sketches,diagrams and maps;
(vii) explain the cultural, social and economic circumstances of people in their immediateenvironments and those of other countries within the sub-region.

SCHEME OF EXAMINATION


There will be three papers, Papers 1, 2 and 3 all of which must be taken. Papers 1 and 2 will be acomposite paper to be taken at one sitting.

PAPER 1:

will consist of fifty objective questions to be taken in 1 hour for 50 marks. The questionswill be drawn from topics in the syllabus that are common to all the member countries.Candidates will be required to attempt all the questions.

PAPER 2:

will contain nine essay-type questions out of which candidates will be required toanswer four in 2 hours for 80 marks.

It will be made up of two sections;
Sections A and B for candidates in Nigeria and threesections; Sections A, B and C for candidates in Ghana, Liberia, Sierra Leone and TheGambia.

Candidates in Nigeria will be required to attempt four questions in all, choosing twoquestions from each of Sections A and B.
Candidates in Ghana, Liberia, Sierra Leone andThe Gambia will be required to attempt four questions in all, choosing at least one questionfrom each of Sections A, B and C.

The questions will be distributed in the sections as follows:

Section A: Economic and Human Geography

This will consist of three essay-type questions on Economic and Human Geography.
Candidates in Nigeria will be required to attempt any two of them while candidates in Ghana,Liberia, Sierra Leone and The Gambia are to attempt at least one of the questions.

Section B: Regional Geography of Candidate’s Home Country

There will be a set of three essay-type questions on Regional Geography on each of Ghana,Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone and The Gambia. Candidates in Nigeria will be required toanswer two of the questions on their country while those in the other countries will answer atleast one out of the sets for their countries.

Section C: Regional Geography of Africa

There will be three essay-type questions drawn from Africa for candidates in Ghana, SierraLeone, Liberia and The Gambia out of which candidates are expected to answer at least one.

PAPER 3: Element of Practical and Physical Geography

Will consist of eight essay-type questions out of which candidates are to answer four in 1hour 50 minutes for 70 marks. Question 1, on map reading and interpretation, will becompulsory for all candidates and will carry 25 marks while the other questions will carry 15marks each. Candidates are advised not to spend more than 35 minutes on Question 1.Candidates will be expected to bring graduated rulers (both metric and imperial), a completemathematical set, a piece of string and a simple non-programmable calculator for use duringthe writing of the paper.


DETAILED SYLLABUS

Any topic in the syllabus that is marked with one asterisk (*) will be for candidates in Ghana,Sierra Leone, Liberia and The Gambia. Topics that are marked with two asterisks (**) will befor candidates in Nigeria only. The topics without asterisk are for all member countries.
TOPICSCONTENTSNOTES

ELEMENTS OFPRACTICAL ANDPHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY

Map work

Maps: meaning, types and uses.
Map reading and interpretation based on contoured surveymaps of parts of West Africa: scale, measurement ofdistances, direction and bearing, map reduction andenlargement, identification of physical features such as spurs,valleys, etc. and cultural features such as city walls,settlements, communication routes, etc.; measurement ofgradients, drawing of cross profiles, inter-visibility,description and explanation of drainage characteristics andpattern; patterns of communication, settlement and land use.

*Principles of elementary surveying

Definitions of terms, instruments, chain and prismaticcompass, plotting of traverse, avoiding obstacles in the field.

**Geographic Information System(GIS)

GIS: Basic concepts, components (hardware, software, data,procedures and experts); sources of data (land surveying,remote sensing, map digitizing, map scanning, fieldinvestigation and tabular data etc); uses (defence, agriculture,urban development, mapping, surveying, transportation,census etc), problems (power, personnel, capital etc).

Statistical maps and diagrams

Graphical representation of statistical data: Bar graphs, Linegraphs, flow charts, dot maps, proportional circles, densitymaps, isopleth maps.

Elements of Physical Geography

The earth as a planet in relation to the sun, latitude anddistance, longitude and time, earth’s rotation and revolutionand their effects, structure of the earth (internal and external).

*Hydrosphere

(i) Rocks

Ocean basins, salinity, ocean current ( causes, types and theireffects on the temperature of adjacent coastlands), lakes,rivers, lagoons, water as an environmental resource.

Types, characteristics, formation and uses.

(ii) Tectonic processes

Vulcanicity, earthquake, landforms: Mountains, plains, karstsand coastal landforms (formation, characteristics andimportance).

(iii) Denudational processes

Agencies modifying landforms such as weathering, massmovement, running water, underground water, wind andwaves.

(iv) Weather and climate

Simple weather study based on local observation, descriptionof the Stevenson’s screen and uses of basic weatherinstruments e.g. rain gauge, thermometer, barometer, windvane etc.

(v) Climate
(a) Elements

Rainfall, sunshine, air pressure, wind, humidity, temperatureand cloud. Factors affecting climatic elements e.g. altitude,latitude, ocean currents, land and sea breezes, continentality,aspect. Interpretation of climatic charts and data.

(b) Classification

Major types of climate (Hot climate – Equatorial, TropicalContinental, Desert; Temperate climate – warm and cool).
Classification of climate based on Greek and Koppen.

** (c) Climate change

Meaning, causes, effects and remedies.

*(vi) Vegetation

Major types (Tropical Rainforest, cool/warm temperatewoodland, Tropical Grassland); characteristics, distribution,factors affecting their distribution, plant communities.
Vegetation as an environmental resource.
Conservation ofvegetation resources.

*(vii)Soil

Definition, local types and characteristics. Factors andprocesses of soil formation, soil profile, importance to manand the effects of human activities on soil. Soil erosion andconservation.

(viii)The environment
(a) Environmentalresources

Meaning, classification ( renewable and non renewable)types ( vegetation, water, mineral, atmospheric, etc ) and theimportance of each.

(b) Environmentalproblems/ hazards

Types (soil erosion, drought, desert encroachment, floodingand pollution), causes, effects and prevention of each.

(c) Environmentalconservation

Meaning, importance, methods, problems and solutions.

ECONOMIC AND HUMANGEOGRAPHY

(i) World Population

Factors and patterns of growth, distribution and movement,growth rate problems.

(ii) Settlement

Types (rural and urban); patterns and factors affectinglocation; growth and size; functions of rural and urbansettlements; interaction patterns( urban-rural, rural-urban,urban-urban, rural-rural); migration.

(iii) Transportation

Modes (roads, railways, water, air, pipeline, cables, ropewaysetc.) Transportation and economic development (movementof people and commodities, national and international trade,diffusion of ideas and technology, national integration);problems of transportation and their solutions.

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(iv) Industry

Classification (primary, secondary and tertiary);
types (heavyand light industry);
factors of industrial location;
contributions to development; problems/solutions.

(v) Trade

Meaning, types (national and international), reasons for trade,importance.

(vi) Tourism

Meaning, centres, reasons (leisure, recreation, education etc );importance, problems and solutions.

ASPECTS OF REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY PECULIAR TO MEMBER COUNTRIES

TOPICSCONTENTSNOTES

REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY OFNIGERIA

(a) Nigeria on broad outline

Location, position, size, distance and political divisions.

(b) Physical setting

Relief, drainage, climate, vegetation

(c) Population

Size, distribution, structure, population quality, populationmovement, population data ( sources and problems/solutions)

(d) Resources

Mineral (petroleum, gas, coal, tin/columbite, iron ore,limestone)- distribution, methods of extraction, problems andsolutions)

Power (Petroleum, gas, coal HEP, solar energy)

Water (rivers, lakes, dams, sea, underground water)Vegetation (trees, food and cash crops; timber,etc)- forest,savanna, biosphere.

(e) Agriculture

Types of agricultural practices, food and cash crops,importance, problems and solutions.

(f) Transportation

Mode, advantages and disadvantages, problems andsolutions, influence of transportation on human activities.

(g) Communication

Communication networks, advantages and disadvantages,importance, problems and solutions.

(h) Industry

Definition, types, major industrial zones, factors of location,importance, problems and solutions.

(i) Trade

Meaning, types (national and international), stock exchange,capital market, forex, major commercial areas, importance ofcommercial activities.

(j) Tourism

Meaning, centres, reasons for tourism, importance, problemsand solutions.

(k) Issues on development andenvironmental concerns

Issues of Development and Environmental Conservation:
Rural and regional development, resource management andconservation, environmental pollution e.g.
air, water, soil,noise; waste disposal, etc.

(l) ECOWAS

Meaning, member countries, purposes/mandate,advantages/benefits, disadvantages, problems and solutions.

(m) Geo-political issues

Geo-political issues-Land reclamation.

REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY OFGHANA

(a) Ghana on broad outline

Location, position, size, distance and political divisions.

(b) Physical setting

Physical environment (geology, relief, drainage, climate,vegetation and soils).

(c) Population

Size, growth, distribution and density, age/sex structure:fertility, morbidity and mortality, migration.

(d) Settlement

Origin, types (rural and urban), characteristics, hierarchy,land use, urbanization processes, problems and solutions.

(e) Primary economic activities
(i) Agriculture

Subsistence (intensive and extensive) commercial (vegetable,livestock, dairying, commercial grain), plantation, problemsand solutions.

(ii) Fishing

Inland and ocean (in-shore/off shore), methods, types of fish,storage and marketing, importance, problems and solutions.

(iii) Lumbering

Sources of timber, methods of exploitation, types of species (for internal use and for export), problems and solutions,conservation.

(iv) Mining

Types, distribution of minerals, methods of extraction,importance, problems and solutions.

(f) Manufacturing

Types of manufacturing industries, distribution, factorsinfluencing location of industries, problems ofindustrialization.

(g) Trade and commerce

Services, transport and communication, recreation andtourism, administration.

(h) Tourism

Meaning, centres, reasons for tourism, importance, problemsand solutions.

(i) Energy and power

Water (Akosombo and Kpong Hydro-electric Power projects– benefits and side effects), fuel wood and charcoal,petroleum and natural gas (Saltpond), solar, wave and windenergies (Donkokrom and Kokrobite), Biogas e.g. cow dung.

(i) Issues on developmentand environmentalconcerns

Issues of Development and Environmental Conservation:
Rural and regional development, resource management andconservation, environmental pollution e.g. air, water, soil,noise; waste disposal etc.

We provide educational resources/materials, curriculum guide, syllabus, scheme of work, lesson note & plan, waec, jamb, O-level & advance level GCE lessons/tutorial classes, on various topics, subjects, career, disciplines & department etc. for all the Class of Learners

REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY OFSIERRA LEONE

(a) Sierra Leone on broadoutline

Size and location, physical environment, people andsettlements.

(b) Primary economic activities
(i)Agriculture

Meaning of agriculture, Subsistence (intensive and extensive)commercial (vegetable, livestock, dairying, commercial grainproduction), plantation, problems and solutions.

(ii) Fishing

Meaning of fishing, Inland and ocean (in-shore/off shore),methods, types of fish, storage and marketing, importance,problems and solutions.

(iii) Lumbering

Meaning of lumbering, Sources of timber, methods ofexploitation, types of species (for internal use and for export),problems and solutions, conservation.

(iv) Mining

Types, distribution of minerals, methods of extraction,problems and solutions.

(c) Manufacturing

Location of industry, types of industries, problems ofmanufacturing industry, Energy and Power, water, fuelwoodand charcoal, biogas (e.g. cow-dung), hydro-electric powerprojects e.g. Dodo, Guma, Bumbuna.

(d) Transport andcommunication

Road, rail, water, air, the roles of transport andcommunication to economic development,( internal andexternal trade, diffusion of ideas and technology), problemsof transport and communication, solutions.

(e) Trade

Major commodities of trade (agricultural, manufacturedgoods, minerals, etc.), patterns of trade (internal andexternal), problems of trade.

(f) Population

Size, growth, distribution and migration.

(g) Tourism

Meaning, development of tourism, problems of tourism &solutions, socio-economic effects of tourism. Main tourismareas, factors responsible for its development, economicimportance.

REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY OFLIBERIA

(a) Liberia on broad outline

Location, position, size, distance and political divisions.

(b) Physical setting

Relief, drainage, climate, vegetation and soil.

(c) Population

Size, distribution, structure, population quality, populationmovement, population data ( sources, problems & solutions)

(d) Resources

Mineral, power, water and vegetation resources, importanceof resources to development.

(e) Agriculture

Types of agricultural practices, food and cash crops,importance, problems and solutions.

(f) Transportation

Mode, advantages and disadvantages, problems andsolutions, influence of transportation on human activities.

(g) Communication

Communication networks, advantages and disadvantages,importance, problems & solutions.

(h) Industry

Definition, types, major industrial zones, factors of location,importance, problems and solutions, importance.

(i) Trade

Meaning, types ( national and international), forex, major commercial areas, importance of commercial activities.

(j) Tourism

Meaning, centres, reasons for tourism, importance, problemsand solutions.

(k) Fishing

Meaning of fishing, Inland and ocean (in-shore/off shore),methods, types of fish, storage and marketing, importance,problems and solutions.

(l) Mining

Types, distribution of minerals, methods of extraction,problems and solutions.

REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY OFSENEGAMBIA

(a) Senegambia on broadoutline

Location, position, size, distance and political divisions.

(b) Physical setting

Relief, drainage, climate, vegetation and soil.

(c) Population

Size, distribution, structure, population quality, populationmovement, population data ( sources, problems &solutions)

(d) Resources

Mineral, power, water and vegetation resources, importanceof resources to development.

(e) Agriculture

Types of agricultural practices, food and cash crops,importance, problems and solutions.

(f) Transportation

Mode, advantages and disadvantages, influence oftransportation on human activities, problems and solutions.

(g) Communication

Communication networks, advantages and disadvantages,importance, problems and solutions.

(h) Industry

Definition, types, major industrial zones, factors of location,importance, problems and solutions.

(i) Mining

Types, distribution, methods of extraction, problems andsolutions

(j) Fishing

Meaning of fishing, Inland and ocean (in-shore/off shore),methods, types of fish, storage and marketing, problems andsolutions.

(k) Issues on development andenvironmental concerns

Issues of Development and Environmental Conservation:
Rural and regional development, resource management andconservation, environmental pollution e.g. air, water, soil,noise, waste disposal etc.

(l) Trade

Meaning, types (national and international), forex, majorcommercial areas, importance of commercial activities,problems and solutions.

(m) Tourism

Meaning, centres, reasons for tourism, importance, problems and solutions.

REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY OFAFRICA

(a) Africa on broad outline

Location, size, position, political divisions and associatedislands, physical features and their economic importance(relief, drainage, climate and vegetation), distribution ofminerals.

(b) Selected topics

(i) Irrigation agriculture

Irrigation agriculture in the Nile Basin and the Niger Basin.

(ii) Plantation agriculture

Plantation agriculture in West and East Africa.

We provide educational resources/materials, curriculum guide, syllabus, scheme of work, lesson note & plan, waec, jamb, O-level & advance level GCE lessons/tutorial classes, on various topics, subjects, career, disciplines & department etc. for all the Class of Learners

(iii) Oil production

Oil production in Nigeria, Ghana and Libya.

(iv) Lumbering

Lumbering in Equatorial Africa (with particular reference toCote d’Ivoire and Zaire).

(v) Gold Mining

Gold mining in South Africa.

(vi) Copper mining

Copper mining in Zambia and Zaire

(vii) Population

Population distribution in West Africa.

(viii) ECOWAS

Meaning, member countries, purposes/mandate,advantages/benefits, disadvantages, problems and solutions.

FIELD WORK

Fieldwork on any one of the following topics should be basedon local geography of candidate’s home country.
(Thisaspect of the syllabus should be examined by schools as partof the continuous assessment and should account for 25% ofthe total mark allotted to continuous assessment).

(i) Land use (rural or urban):rural – crop farming (e.g. rice, cocoa, etc. )urban crop farmingmining (e.g. coal, tin, petroleum etc.), fishing.urban – commercial activities, ports, factories,recreational etc.
(ii) Market survey – rural or urban.
(iii) Traffic flow – rural or urban.
(iv) Patterns of journey to work – rural or urban.
(v) Rate of erosion in the locality, etc.

SUGGESTED READING LIST

S/NAUTHORTITLEPUBLISHER

1.

R. B. BUNNETT & P.O. OKUNROTIFA

General Geography in Diagram for West Africa.

Longman

2.

B. O. AKINDELE & G. C. LEONG

Certificate Physical and Human Geography (West African Edition).

Oxford

3.

STRAHLER, A. N.

Introduction to Physical Geography.

Wiley International Ed.

4.

MONKHOUSE, F. J.

Principles of Physical Geography.

University of London

5.

UDO, REUBEN K.

Comprehensive Geography of Tropical Africa.

Longman

6.

UDO, REUBEN K.

Geographical Regions of Nigeria.

Longman

7.

N. P. ILOEJE

A new Geography of Nigeria (New Edition).

Longman

8.

M. A. ABEGUNDE et al

Senior Secondary Geography Series (1-3)

Longman

9.

DICKSON K. B. & BENNEH G.

New Geography of Ghana.

Ghana University Press

10.

DICKSON & ACHEAMPONG

Geography for Senior Secondary Schools in Ghana.

Ghana Education Service

11.

OBOLI, H.O.N.

An outline Geography of West Africa.

Harrap & Company

12.

J. I. CLARKE

Sierra Leone in Maps.

Hodder & Stoughton

13.

GWYN-JONES

A New Geography of Sierra Leone.

Hodder & Stoughton

14.

PRITCHARD, J. M.

Africa.

Longman

15.

M. DUZE & AFOLABI OJO

Macmillan Senior School Atlas.

Macmillan

16.

COLLINS

New Secondary School Atlas.

Longman

17.

PHILIPS

World Atlas.

Longman

18.

CLARY AUDREY N.

Longman Dictionary of Geography (Human and Physical).

Longman

19.

MOORE, W. E.

A Penguin Dictionary of geography.

Longman

We provide educational resources/materials, curriculum guide, syllabus, scheme of work, lesson note & plan, waec, jamb, O-level & advance level GCE lessons/tutorial classes, on various topics, subjects, career, disciplines & department etc. for all the Class of Learners

20.

N. P. ILOEJE, P.C. ONOKALA & F.O.

Basic Geography Course for Senior Secondary Schools Books 1-3.

21.

ODEMERHO

Macmillan Senior School Atlas for Liberia Schools.

Longman

22.

MACMILLAN

IGCSE Geography.

Macmillan

23.

Guiness, P. & Nagle, G.

Hodder Education, UK

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