GENERAL AGRICULTURE

WAEC SYLLABUS ON GENERAL AGRICULTURE

PREAMBLE

This syllabus has been structured to assess learners’ knowledge and skills in the management ofthe soil, raising crops and animals; processing, storage and marketing of agricultural produce andfor keeping records and accounts.It will help to effectively assess the scientific, vocational and technological competencies ofcandidates to fit into the various sub-sectors of agriculture and for tertiary education.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

The syllabus is designed to assess candidates
(1) knowledge and understanding of agricultural principles and practices;
(2) skills in laboratory and field work involving carrying out agricultural experiments,projects and farm work;
(3) scientific skills including observation, classification and interpretation of agriculturaldata;
(4) skills in setting up and managing agribusinesses;
(5) ability to apply scientific knowledge and skills in solving agricultural problems;
(6) understanding of the value chain concept for maintaining food quality and safetystandards.

SCHEME OF EXAMINATION


There will be three papers, Papers 1, 2 and 3 all of which must be taken. Papers 1 and 2 willbe a composite paper to be taken at one sitting.

PAPER 1:

Will consist of fifty multiple-choice objective questions all of which must beanswered within 1 hour for 50 marks.

PAPER 2:

Will consist of ten essay questions divided into five sections, Sections A, B,C, D and E covering the following areas of the syllabus:
Section A: Introduction to Agriculture and Farm Mechanization
Section B: Soil Uses and Management
Section C: Crop production
Section D: Animal Production
Section E: Agricultural Economics, Agribusiness and Extension.
Each section will consist of two questions.
Candidates will be required toanswer one question only from each section for 16 marks.
The paper will last2 hours.

PAPER 3:

Will be a practical test for school candidates or alternative to practical worktest for private candidates.
Each version will consist of four questions all ofwhich must be answered within 2 hours for 60 marks.


DETAILED SYLLABUS

TOPICSCONTENTSNOTES

A. INTRODUCTION TOAGRICULTURE

1. Importance ofagriculture to thenational economy
(a) Definition andbranches ofagriculture

The branches should include crop production,animal production, horticulture, farmmechanization, soil management, fisheries,forestry, agricultural economics and extension.

(b) Role of agriculture inthe national economy

The roles of agriculture in the economicdevelopment of the nation. E.g.
food, shelter,raw material as well as the inter-dependence ofagriculture and industry will be assessed.

2. Meaning, types andimportance of agriculturaleducation in nationaldevelopment
(a) Meaning and types ofagricultural education

Types should include formal e.g.
general, prevocationaland vocational; non-formal e.g.
agricultural extension and agricultural youthclubs; informal e.g.
apprenticeship.
Merits and demerits of the formal type should beassessed.

(b) Importance ofagricultural education

Importance should include manpowerdevelopment, acquisition of leadership skills,inculcating the spirit of voluntarism in theyouth, strengthening democracy and enhancingrural development.

(c) Agriculturaloccupations

Assessment should cover the major divisions ofoccupations in agriculture e.g.
production ofcrops and animals, agricultural mechanization,processing of agricultural produce, landscaping,agricultural resource management, forestry,teaching and research and provision of services.

(d) Job descriptionand entryrequirements foragriculturaloccupations

3. Measurements inagriculture
(a) Calculations inagriculture

Calculation of area, volume, percentage, plantdensity, yield per unit area, rate of application offertilizers and pesticides, seed rate and dressingpercentage of carcasses are required.

(b) Comparison betweenindigenous measurementand standardized units ofmeasurement.

Advantages and disadvantages of usingindigenous and standardized units ofmeasurement are required.

4. Land and its uses
(a) Uses of land:
Agricultural and nonagriculturaluses

Uses of land for agriculture, forestry, game andwildlife, fisheries should be assessed.

(b) Land tenure systems inWest Africa

Description of the systems should includecommunal land ownership, free-hold title, leaseholdtitle, tenancy.

(c) Effects of land tenuresystems on agriculturalproduction

Effects should include the merits and demeritsof each system.

5. Introduction to forestry
(a) Definition offorest andforestry

Differences between forestry and forests arerequired.

(b) Salient featuresof forest

Knowledge of the salient features should includethe following: long term activity;
occupies largearea for a long period of time;
develop overseveral years;
poses lots of risks;
providesbusiness opportunities.

6. Forest products and theircontribution to nationaldevelopment
(a) Types of plants andanimals in the forest

Types of plants: trees, shrubs, herbs, climbers,fungi etc.
Types of animals: birds, insects, mammals,reptiles, amphibians, snails etc.

(b) Contributionsof forests to nationaldevelopment

Knowledge and understanding of contributionsof the forest to national development:
conservation of climate, water, soil, plant andanimal species; sustenance of agriculturalproduction; provision of wood for industry, construction and fuel.
Uses of timber and non-timber forest products:
- Timber products for buildings, furniture,railway, paper, boats and canoes, carving,utensils, toys, educational equipment, etc
- Non-timber forest products such as gameand wildlife, skins and hides, plant medicine,foods and spices, ropes, roofing materials,sponge, etc.
Contribution of forest and forest products toemployment, income generation (both local andforeign) social and educational activities andhealth.

(c) Meaning, causes andeffects of deforestation

Knowledge and understanding of effects ofdeforestation on the environment and thenational economy are required.

(d) Forest managementpractices

Management skills should include: selectiveexploitation of forest resources and forestregeneration.

(e) Game and wildlifeconservation

Importance of game and wildlife and its socioeconomiccontributions.

7. Sustainableagriculture andgood agriculturalpractices (GAP)
(a) The concepts of sustainableagriculture and goodagricultural practices

Concept of sustainable agriculture shouldinclude practices that address problems of soilfertility, pest control and environmentaldegradation and ensures continued agriculturalproductivity.
Good agricultural practices that ensure theattainment of acceptable food safety and qualitystandards are required.
Examples of sustainable agricultural practicesand good agricultural practices in West Africaare required.
Knowledge of the relationships between the twoconcepts should be assessed.

(b) Factors influencingGood agricultural practices and sustainable agriculturalproduction in West Africa.

Factors should include social, technological,economic and political. Physical factors such as climate change as well as food quality andsafety standards should also be assessed.

8. Development of agriculture
(a) Meaning and objectives ofagriculturaldevelopment

Objectives of agricultural development in WestAfrica should include:
self sufficiency in foodproduction, improved traditional cash cropproduction for export, production of nontraditionalcrops and animals for export, practiceof sustainable agriculture and production ofindustrial raw materials.

(b) Problems of agriculturaldevelopment in WestAfrica

Problems should include: land tenure systems,inadequate social amenities, low level ofeducation, presence of devastating diseases, lowaccess to extension services, ageing farmingpopulation, poor transportation systems andlimited knowledge of improved technologies.Solutions to problems should also be assessed.

(c) Role of government andother agencies inagricultural development

Roles played by agencies such as ministryresponsible for agriculture, research institutions,banks, processing companies, universities,NGO’s should be covered.

B. SOIL USES ANDMANAGEMENT

1.Origin and formation of soils
(a) Classification andformation of rocks

Assessment should be limited to only the maintypes of rocks – igneous, sedimentary andmetamorphic.

(b) Processes of soilformation

Understanding of the process of weathering ofrocks (physical, chemical and biological),transportation and deposition of weatheredmaterials, role of organic matter are required.

(c) Factors of soil formation:parent material,topography, livingorganisms, climate and time

The roles played by each factor should beassessed.

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(d) Soil profile Meaning,description and theimportance of soil profile

Soil horizons should be described in terms ofcolour, texture, structure, depth, porosity andorganic matter content.Importance of the knowledge of soil profile in crop production should also be assessed.

2. Nature, composition andproperties of soil
(a) Components of soil

Assessment should be based on organic matter(including micro-living organisms), mineralparticles, air and water.
The roles of soil living organisms and organicmatter should be assessed.

(b) Properties of soil:
Physical and chemicalproperties

Physical properties should include colour,texture, structure, soil air, water, temperature,consistency. Chemical properties e.g. soilreaction (pH).
The importance of soil physical and chemicalproperties to the growth and development ofcrop plants should also be covered.

3. Land preparation practices
(a) Methods of land preparation:
(i) Indigenous methods

The methods should include slashing, hoeing,felling, controlled burning, stumping, ridgingand mounding.

(ii) Mechanized methods

Bulldozing, felling, ploughing, harrowing, useof herbicides and ridging should be assessed.

(b) Effects of indigenous andmechanized methods of landpreparation on the soil

4. Plant nutrients andnutrient cycles
(a) Classificationand sources ofplant nutrients

Plant nutrients should be classified into macronutrientsand micro-nutrients.

(b) Functions ofplant nutrients

Functions of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium,zinc and iron in plant growth and developmentare required.

(c) Deficiency symptoms ofnutrients in plants

Knowledge of deficiency symptoms associatedwith nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, zinc andiron are required.

(d) Nitrogen and carbon cycles

The cycles as natural sources of nitrogen andcarbon should be covered.
The knowledge and understanding of nitrogenand carbon cycles are required.

5. Soil fertility and itsmaintenance
(a) Meaning of soilfertility and soilproductivity

Explanation of the concepts of soil fertility andproductivity is required.

(b) Characteristicsof fertile soil

Assessment should include adequate nutrients,presence of organic matter, suitable pH, goodwater holding capacity, good aeration andabsence of toxic substances.

(c) Methods ofmaintainingand improvingsoil fertility

Methods such as crop rotation, application offertilizers, cover cropping, liming, mulching andfallowing are required.

(d) Classificationof fertilizers

Fertilizers should be classified into organic andinorganic (chemical) fertilizers.
Furtherclassification of inorganic fertilizers intocompound, straight or single fertilizers is alsorequired.

(e) Preparation ofcompost

Knowledge and skills in the preparation ofcompost using stack/heap and pit methods arerequired.

(f) Methods offertilizerapplication

Knowledge and skills in the application offertilizer should include broadcasting, rowplacement or side dressing, band placement andfoliar application.
Split application of fertilizers involving topdressing should be assessed.

(g) Factorsaffectingfertilizer use

Understanding of factors such as crop factors,soil factors, climatic factors, social factors andmanagement is required.

6. Soil and waterconservation
(a) Concepts of soil and waterconservation

Explanation of the concepts of soil and waterconservation is required.

(b) Types of soil water and their importance

Knowledge and understanding of gravitational water (non-available water), capillary water,hygroscopic water, available water andsuperfluous water are required.Wilting point and field capacity should becovered.

(c) Soil erosion:agents and types

Agents such as water, wind, ice should becovered.
Types of erosion caused by water and windshould also be assessed.

(d) Factors influencingsoil erosion

Factors should include wind, rainfall,topography, vegetation cover, soil type, humanand animal activities.

(e ) Effects of soilerosion

Effects such as loss of top soil, loss of soilfertility, siltation of dams, reduction in waterholding capacity of soils should covered.

(f) Economic importance ofsoil erosion

(g) Soil and water conservationmethods

The methods should be assessed underagronomic, soil conditioning and tillagepractices.

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C. FARM MECHANIZATION

1. Introduction to farmmechanization
(a) Meaning, objectives andimportance of farmmechanization

Knowledge and understanding of the meaning,objectives and importance of farmmechanization are required.

(b) Safety precautions onthe farm

Farm safety measures in the use of machinery,electricity, agro-chemicals, draught animals,sharp tools should be covered.
Dressing codes, first aid and use of first aid boxshould also be covered.

2. Farm powerSources of farmpower:
human, animal,

Assessment of sources of farm power shouldinclude the use of draught animals and factorsthat affect the efficiency of draught animals.

2. combustion engines, solar,wind, water and electricity

Uses, merits and demerits of each source offarm power should also be covered.

3. Farm machinery andimplements:
tractor, power tiller,mistblower, lawn mower,knapsack sprayer, plough,harrow, ridger, planter andtrailer

Differences between farm machinery andimplements should be covered.
Assessment should include use, care andmaintenance of farm machinery andimplements.
Candidates should be able toidentify the major parts of farm implements andstate their functions.
The major parts of theinternal combustion engine and their functionsshould also be covered.

4. Harvest and post-harvesttools, equipment andmachinery

Skills in the operation of simple farm machinesshould be assessed.

(a) Harvesting tool:
e.g. sickle, cutlass and hoe

Assessment should include identification,functions, care and maintenance of tools,equipment and machinery.
The names andfunctions of the principal parts of each machineshould also be covered.

(b) Harvesting machinery:
e.g. combine harvester,cotton picker andgroundnut lifter

Knowledge and ability to operate harvesting,processing and storage equipment should becovered.

(c) Processing machinery andequipment: cassavagrater, corn miller anddehusker.

(d) Storage equipment:e.g. silos, barns, cribs,refrigerator and deepfreezers.

5. Irrigation and Drainage
(a) Meaning, merits anddemerits of irrigationand drainage

Differences between irrigation and drainage arerequired.
Benefits and problems of irrigation and drainagein agriculture should also be covered.

(a) Classification and methodsof irrigation and drainagesystems including theirmerits and demerits

Knowledge and understanding of irrigationsystems such as surface (e.g. furrow, floodingand drip/trickle);
overhead (e.g. sprinkler, use ofwatering can); and drainage systems (open orsurface, subsurface).
Merits and demerits ofeach system should be covered.
Assessment should cover equipment used inirrigation and drainage e.g.
watering cans, pipes,sprinklers and pumps.

6. Surveying and planningof farmstead
(a) Purpose of surveyingAnd measurement

Importance of surveying in road construction,agriculture, mining and town planning should becovered.

(b) Surveying instrumentsand their uses

Assessment should cover identification, uses,care and maintenance of the followinginstruments:
ranging poles, gunters chain,measuring tape, prismatic compass, theodolite,dumpy level, abney level, tripod stand,global placement system (GPS) and total station(TS).

(c) Procedure for conductinga survey

Knowledge and understanding of procedures forconducting reconnaissance and preliminarysurveys, as well as linear and angularmeasurements and recording of data arerequired.

(d) Map preparation

Scale selection, baseline determination andtransfer of field measurements onto maps shouldbe covered.

(e) Meaning and importanceof farmstead planning

Knowledge and understanding of farmsteadoutlay should cover the influence of factors suchas topography, water source, type of soil,direction of wind and sunshine.

(f) Principles of planningfarmstead outlay

D. CROPPRODUCTION

1. Importance andclassification of crop plants
(a) Benefits derived fromcrop plants

Knowledge of the benefits of crop plants such asfood, animal feed, industrial raw materials,employment, income and foreign exchange isrequired.

(b) Classificationof crop plants

Classification based on growth cycle/lifespan,botany, uses and methods of cultivation shouldbe covered.

2. Principles of crop production
(a) Site selection andpreparation

Factors influencing the selection of a site e.g.
topography, water, soil type, vegetation, market;
different methods of land preparation (indigenous and mechanized) and their effectson the soil should be covered.

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(b) Meaning and objectives oftillage

Meaning of tillage; tillage practices (ploughing,harrowing, ridging, mounding);
types of tillage(minimum, zero, primary and secondary);
objectives of tillage are required.
Differences between primary and secondarytillage should also be covered.

(c) Methods of plantpropagation

Knowledge and understanding of plantpropagation by seeds and vegetative parts aswell as their merits and demerits should becovered.

(d) Activities in seedpropagation

Seed propagation activities such as seedselection, testing, treatment and plantingmethods;
planting at stake and nursery practicesare required.

(e) Methods of vegetativepropagation

Propagation involving the use of materials suchas corms, suckers, rhizomes, slips, crowns,runners, bulbs, tubers and manipulation of plantsas in budding, grafting and layering should becovered.

(f) Cultural practices incrop production

Assessment should cover the description andreasons for carrying out cultural practices incrop production.

3. General principlesand practices of plant protection
(a) Classification of cropdiseases

Diseases to be classified into pathogenicdiseases (bacterial, viral, fungal, and nematodesdiseases);
and non-pathogenic diseases (causedby excess or low nutrient levels, temperature,water etc.)

(b) Diseases of crop plants:
(i) Fungal diseases
Damping off, leaf spot ofmaize, gummosisof citrus, sikatogaof plantain/banana, blackpod of cocoa

Assessment of the understanding of the diseasesshould be done under the following headings:
- causal agent;
- mode of transmission;
- affected crop(s);
- symptoms;
- prevention and control measures.

(ii) Bacterial diseases
Bacterial soft rotof carrots, cabbage rot,black soft rot of onion

(iii) Viral diseases
Cassava leafmosaic, leafcurl, groundnutleaf rosette,maize streak,Cape St. Paulwilt, swollenshoot

(iv) Nematodes and worms
Rook knotnematodedisease oftomato and okro

(v) Non-pathogenic
diseasesBlossom-end rotof tomato

(c) Effects of plant diseases oncrop production.

Assessment should cover knowledge andunderstanding of the effects of diseases on cropproduction.

(d) Classification of crop pests

Classification of crop pests should includerodents, insects, birds and nematodes.
Classification of pests into field and storagepests as well as the classification of insect

(e) Methods of pest anddisease control

Control methods should include physical,chemical, biological, cultural,prohibition/quarantine, integrated pestmanagement and use of resistant varieties.

(f) Weeds

Assessment should cover classification,importance, mode of dispersal and methods ofweed control.
Ability to calibrate knapsack sprayer forpurposes of chemical control of weeds isrequired.

(g) Invasive Alienspecies (IAS)

Definition, identification and description ofcommon features of invasive alien species.
Effects of invasive alien species on agriculture.
Ways to prevent and control invasive alienspecies are required.

4. Husbandry of selected crops:
Climatic and soil requirements,land preparation, seed rate,spacing, time of planting,nursery requirements, fertilizerapplication, weed control, pestand diseases control, harvestingand storage of at least one cropfrom each of the following cropgroupings:
(a) Field crops
Maize,sorghum,cassava, yam,cowpea,groundnut

Assessment should be based on the knowledgeand ability to measure yield of harvested cropsin terms of weight, crates and bags per unit areaof land.
Knowledge and skills in post-harvest handlingof produce to minimize losses as well as costbenefitanalysis of projects should be covered.

(b) Vegetable crops
Tomato, okro,onion, shallot

(c) Fruit crops
Plantain, banana,pineapple,mango, citrus

(d) Tree crops
Cocoa, oil palm,cashew

5. Principles of cropimprovement
(a) Meaning andaims of cropimprovement

Aims such as production of disease/pestresistant varieties, to increase yield, to improvequality of produce, to reduce maturity periodshould be covered.

(b) Methods ofcrop improvement:introduction,selection andcross-breeding

Knowledge and understanding of the methodsare required.

6. Basic principles ofornamental plantproduction
(a) Identification,classificationand importanceof ornamentalplants

Assessment should be based on identification,importance and classification of various types ofornamental plants according to their uses e.g.
bedding plants, hedging plants, borders, trees,shrubs, climbing plants and lawns plants.

(b) Preparation ofbeds and borders

Differences between bed and borders;
andprinciples to be observed when planting bedsand borders should also be covered.

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E. ANIMALPRODUCTION

1. Importance, classificationand distribution of breedsof farm animals inWest Africa
(a) Importance of farmanimals

Importance of farm animals should include
food, traction, power, transport, research, supplyof manure, feed, medicine, sports and pleasure.
Animals should be classified as:
Ruminants:
e.g. sheep, goat, cattle
Non-ruminants:
e.g. pigs, poultry
Non-ruminant herbivores:
e.g. rabbits, horses,grasscutters

(b) Classification of farmAnimals

(c ) Characteristicsand distributionof farm animals inWest Africa

Identification of the major breeds of farmanimals, their characteristics and distribution inWest Africa as well as factors affecting thedistribution of farm animals should be covered.

2. Animal nutrition
(a) Digestivesystem offarm animals

Knowledge and understanding of the digestivesystem and the process of digestion in ruminantand non-ruminant farm animals are required.

(b) Importanceof food nutrients inanimal production:carbohydrates, proteins,fats, minerals, vitaminsand water

(c) Classificationof feedstuffs

Classification should be based on the majornutrient groups.Importance of roughage in feedstuff should be covered.

(d) Animal feed preparation

Knowledge and skills in the preparation of thefollowing forms of animal feed: concentrates,silage, hay, fresh herbage are required.

(e) Types of animal ration:balanced, maintenanceand production rations

Appropriate rations for animals at each stage ofgrowth should be covered.
E.g. starter,maintenance, grower rations. Ration formulationshould be assessed.

(f) Malnutrition in farmanimals

Effects of malnutrition on animal production arealso required.

(g) Meaning, types andimportance of forage andpasture crops

Identification of some common forage andpasture crops and their importance should becovered.

3. Reproduction in farm animals
(a) Male and femalereproductive systems

The names and functions of the major parts ofthe male and female reproductive systems offarm animals should be assessed.

(b ) Oestrus and signs of heat

Knowledge and understanding of oestrus, signsof heat and its importance are required.

(c) Process ofreproduction

Assessment should cover mating, fertilization,gestation and parturition as well as functions ofhormones involved in reproduction.

(d) Inbreeding:
causes and effects

Ways of preventing inbreeding should becovered.

4. Principles of animalimprovement
(a) Meaning and aims of animalimprovement

(b) Methods of animalimprovement

Assessment should cover methods such asintroduction, selection and breeding.
Advantages and disadvantages of each methodare also required.

(c) Artificial insemination

Procedures such as semen collection, dilution,storage and insemination are required.
Advantages and disadvantages of artificialinsemination should be covered.

5. General managementpractices in farmanimal production
(a) Meaning and objectives ofManagement practices inanimal production

Assessment should be based on knowledge andunderstanding of suitable environmental factorsin animal housing e.g.
ventilation, space andweather conditions;
appropriate feedstuffs andfeed preparation;
creep feeding, weaning,debeaking, dehorning, disbudding, castration,fostering of young animals and record keeping.

(b) Managementsystems of keeping farmanimal

Explanation of extensive, semi-intensive andintensive systems is required.
Advantages anddisadvantages of each system should beassessed.

(c) Selection of breedingstock

Assessment should be based on factorsconsidered in selecting breeding stock e.g.
performance records, appearance and state ofanimal.

(d) Processing and marketingof farm animals

Knowledge and skills in slaughtering anddressing of farm animals should be covered.
Marketing whole animals or in cut-up parts ofthe carcass is required.

6. Principles of animalhealth management

(a) Diseases in farm animaland their causes

(b) Diseases of farm animal:

(i) Viral:

Foot and mouth,rinderpest, Newcastle, fowlpox

(ii) Bacterial:

Anthrax, brucellosis,tuberculosis

(iii) Fungal:

aspergillosis, ringworm

(iv) Protozoan:

trypanosomiasis,coccidiosis, redwater

Causes of diseases should include bacteria,viruses, fungi, protozoa.

The role of injuries,poisons, hereditary conditions and nutritionaldeficiencies should be covered.

Assessment of the knowledge and understandingof the diseases should be under the followingheadings:

causal organisms; mode of transmission;

animals affected; symptoms;

effects on animals;

prevention and control measures.

The role of vectors in disease transmissionshould also be covered

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(c) Pests and parasites offarm animals
(i) Classification of parasitesof farm animals

Classification of parasites into ecto-parasitesand endo-parasites is required.

(ii) Effects of pests andparasites on their host

Assessment would include structure oftapeworm, liver fluke, roundworm, louse andmite. Effects of these parasites on their hostshould be assessed.

(iii) Economic importanceof pests and parasites

(d) Prevention and control ofpests and parasites offarm animals

Methods including sanitary practices, isolation,prohibition, quarantine, routine vaccination,good nutrition, use of drugs and recommendedchemicals should be covered.

7. Husbandry of selected farmanimals:
selection of breeding stock;
housing;
feeding;
breedingprogramme;
routinemanagement practices;
pestsand diseases, their preventionand control

Assessment of the husbandry practices of atleast one animal from each of the following
groups is required:
Ruminants:
cattle, sheep and goats
Non-ruminants: poultry and pigs
Non-ruminant herbivores:
grasscutters, guineapigs and rabbits

8. Introduction to fisheries
Meaning andtypes of fisheries

Description of the various types of fisheries:
- Culture fisheries (aquaculture/fish farming)
- Capture fisheries (subsistence, commercial,
artisanal, industrial fisheries)
Comparison of subsistence and commercialfisheries as well as comparison of artisanal andindustrial fisheries are all required.

9. Fish farming
(a) Meaning of aquacultureand fish farming

Knowledge of the differences betweenaquaculture and fish farming is required.

(b) Benefits and problemsassociated with fishfarming

Assessment should cover benefits and problemsof fish farming.
Possible solutions to problems associated withfish farming should also be covered.

(c) Facilities forgrowing fish

Knowledge of the uses of earthen ponds, cages,concrete tanks, raceways and fish pens in growing fish is required.

(d) Factors that influencechoice of site for a fishpond

Factors to be considered including soil type,slope of land and availability of water;
andmanagement practices such as pond stocking,feeding of fish, water quality maintenance, pondmaintenance and production control arerequired.

(e) Harvesting,processing andpreservation of fish

Signs of maturity and methods used inharvesting fish are required.
Methods of processing fish including washing,scaling, gutting and filleting as well as methodsof preserving fish should such as smoking,cooking, salting, drying, frying, freezing andcanning should be covered.

F. AGRICULTURALECONOMICS,AGRIBUSINESSAND EXTENSION

1. Agricultural economics:
Importance and basicprinciples
(a) Meaning and scope ofagricultural economics

Knowledge of the scope of agriculturaleconomics:
basic economic principles, factors ofproduction, keeping records and accounts,agricultural financing and marketing ofagricultural produce are required.

(b) The farm as aneconomic unit

Economic properties of the farm:
input – output property, market orientation,income, employment generation properties etc.
should be covered.

(c) Agricultural economicsand farm managementin agribusiness

Assessment should cover knowledge of theapplication of economic principles in themanagement of agribusiness and policyformulation.

(d) Principles ofdemand and supply

Factors influencing demand and supply shouldbe assessed.

(e) Determination of pricefor a commodity

Effects of shifts in the demand and supplycurves on equilibrium price are required.

2. Factors of production
(a) Land, labour, capital,management

Assessment should cover the characteristics ofland and factors that determine the supply ofland;
the sources of agricultural labour andfactors that determine the supply and efficiencyof labour;
the types of agricultural capital andthe role of capital.

(c) The productionfunction:The law ofdiminishingreturns

Determination of how the various factors couldbe combined for maximization of profits and thelaw of diminishing marginal returns should becovered.
The drawing and interpretation of the productionfunction curve;
total product curve;
averageproduct curve and the marginal product curveare required.

3. Introduction to agribusinessmanagement
(a) Meaning andexamples ofagribusiness

Examples of agribusiness such as crop andanimal production, fisheries, agroforestry,agroprocessing and specialized services inagriculture should be covered.

(b) Agribusinessesand agriculturerelatedoccupations/professions

On-farm businesses such as tractor operation,cattle range management and bee-keeping aswell as off-farm businesses such as agriculturalextension, quarantine and pineapple export arerequired.

(c) Skills/tasks/ activitiesperformed in agribusinessmanagement

Planning, organizing, budgeting, record keeping,supervising, coordinating should be covered.

3. Establishment andmanagement of agribusiness

(a) Factors to consider insetting up an agribusiness

(b) Steps in establishingagribusiness

Assessment will include availability of capital,tools/equipment, material/input and market.

5. Agricultural financing
(a) Sources of farm credit:Banks, co-operativesocieties, money lenders,governmental agencies,marketing boards, thriftand loan societies

Types of credit e.g.
short, medium and longterm credits should be assessed.
Knowledge of subsidies as a form of agriculturalfinancing is required.

(b) Conditions for obtainingcredit

Conditions such as collateral security, surety,personal reputation and personal investmentshould be covered.

Knowledge and skill of preparing a businessplan are required.

Merits and demerit of the credit sources are alsorequired.

6. Farm records and accounts
(a) Types and importance offarm records and accounts

Differences between farm records and accountswill be assessed.

Types of farm records including physicalrecords (maps, weather chart), inventoryrecords, financial records, production and labourrecords should be covered.

The types of farm accounts should cover assetand liability accounts, receipts and expenditureaccounts, capital and credit accounts.

(b) Preparation of financialstatements

Skills in preparing income and expenditureaccount, profit and loss account and balancesheet is required.

7. Marketing of Agriculturalproduce
(a) Meaning andimportance

Difference(s) between marketing and marketswill be assessed.
Knowledge of the importance of marketing isrequired.

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(b) Marketingfunctions

Assembling, processing, grading, sorting,storage, transportation, advertising anddistribution etc should be covered.

(c) Marketing channels,agents and agencies

The role of marketing agents such as producers,middlemen, consumers, country buyers,wholesalers, retailers and brokers are required.
Functions of marketing agencies such asmarketing boards and co-operatives are alsorequired.
Merits and demerits of various agents andagencies should be covered.

(d) Problems associated withmarketing of agricultural produce

8. Agricultural extension

(a) Meaning and importance ofagricultural extension

(i) Objectives and importance

(ii) Role of agencies inextension education

The roles of agencies such as the universities,research institutions, ministry responsible foragriculture, non-governmental organizations inextension education should be covered

(iii) Characteristics of aneffective extension system

Characteristics such as the establishment of astrong administrative support, provision ofadequate financial support, good transportation,staff motivation and effective monitoring andevaluation should be covered.

(iv) Problems and issues inextension education

(b) Extension teaching methods:
Individual, group andmass methods

Advantages and disadvantages of each extensionteaching method are required.

9. The value chain approach infood quality and safetyassurance

(a) Definition andcharacteristics of valuechain

(b) Benefits of value chaindevelopment in agriculturalproduction and marketing

(c) Principles of value chainapproach

How value chain influences the competitivenessand success of selected industries should becovered.

(d) Food quality andfood safety

Knowledge and understanding of the importanceof standards in food quality and safety assurancein domestic, regional and international marketsare required.

(e) Bodies responsible forfood quality and safetyassurance

Key players in food quality and safety assurance(private and public sectors) should be coverede.g. EPA, Food and Drugs Authority and GSA.

(f) Practices for ensuring foodquality and safety along thevalue chain

Food safety practices by private, national andinternational or global standards along the valuechain are required.
Local and international bodies responsible forfood quality and safety assurance e.g.
GSA,EPA, ISO should be covered.

PRACTICAL

TOPICCONTENTSNOTES

A. INTRODUCTIONTO AGRICULTURE

1. Identification anduses of forest productsand their by-products

Identification and uses of forest products andby-products such as sawn timber, plywood,medicinal plants, snails, animal skins and ivoryshould be assessed.

2. Measurement inAgriculture

Identification and uses of indigenous measuringdevices are required.

B. SOIL USES ANDMANAGEMENT

1. Rocks

Identification of the common rock types:
igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic shouldbe covered.

2. Soil Profile

Identification and simple description of soilprofile are required.

3. Laboratory work onphysical propertiesof the soil:
(a) Examination of textureby manual feel (wet or dryand by sedimentation,porosity and capillaryexperiments

Assessment will be based on skills to performexperiments to determine physical properties ofsoil.

(b) Mechanical analysis bythe use of sieves

(c) Determinationof moisture content of amoist soil sample by weight

(d) Determinationof porosity and waterholding capacity

(e) Demonstrationof capillary action

4. Laboratory work on chemicalproperties of soil:
Demonstration of soil acidityusing simpletests e.g. litmuspaper and colour chart

Assessment will be based on the skills toperform experiments to determine chemicalproperties of soil.

5. Laboratory work todemonstrate the presence ofliving organisms in the soil

6. Ferilizers(organic and inorganic)

Identification of fertilizers, methods ofapplication and calculations of rates ofapplication are required.

7. Simple demonstrationof compost and farm yardmanure preparation

Both heap and pit methods are required.

C. FARMMECHANIZATION

1. Farm tools and equipment

Identification, description, uses and maintenanceof various farm tools and equipment includingthe following:
hoe, cutlass, garden trowel, handfork, shovel, spade, rake, sickle, secateurs,shears, long- handled hoe, pruning knife andbudding knife shoul be covered.

2. Tractor-drawn and animaldrawnimplements

Identification, description and uses of tractorand animal-drawn implements such as ploughs,harrows, ridgers, planters and cultivators as wellas identification of the major parts of theimplements and their functions, care andmaintenance are required.

3. Farm tractor

Identification and functions of the majorcomponents of the tractor; its operation,servicing and maintenance are required.

4. Simple farm machines

Identification, operation, care and maintenanceof simple farm machines, e.g. mistblower, knapsack sprayer, mower and power tiller arerequired.Skill to calibrate the knapsack sprayer will alsobe assessed.

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5. Harvesting and postharvesttools, equipmentand machinery.

Identification and use of harvesting and postharvesttools and equipment e.g.
sickle, cutlass,groundnut lifter, hoe and mattock are required.Identification, operation, care and maintenanceof harvesting and processing machinery such ascombine harvester, cassava grater, corn miller,corn sheller and groundnut decorticator shouldbe covered.

6. Irrigation anddrainage

Identification, operation, care and maintenanceof simple irrigation and drainage equipmentsuch as watering can, sprinkler head and tileswill be assessed.

7. Elementary surveyinginstrument

Identification, uses and care of simple surveyinginstruments eg.
measuring tape, ranging poles,compass, gunters chain, pegs, theodolite, dumpylevel and abney level are required.

D. CROPPRODUCTION

1. Classification of crop plants

Classification based on growth cycle/life span,botany and uses should be covered.

2. Seeds, seedlings, fruits andstorage organs of crops

Identification of seeds, seedlings, fruits, storageorgans and essential parts of the common cropplants, pasture grasses, legumes and local weedsis required.

3. Main diseases and pests ofcrops in the field and instorage.

Identification of main pests and their damage tocrops e.g. cotton stainer, weevils of grains andgroundnuts, beetles are required.

Recognition of main diseases of crops and thecausal agents, where feasible with characteristicsymptoms e.g. smut of cereals, maize streak,swollen shoot of cocoa, mosaic of cassava,rosette of groundnut, leaf spot of groundnut,blast of rice, brown rot of pineapple, black podof cocoa, root knot disease, blossom-end-rot oftomato, damping off disease and sigatoka ofplantain/banana should all be covered.

4. Plant propagation
(a) Propagation by seed: timeof planting, seed rates,plant population andseed viability tests ofcommon local crop plants

Activities involved in propagation by seed:
seedselection and testing, seed treatment, seedsowing, nursery practices are required.

(b) Vegetative propagation

Skill to identify vegetative structures e.g. corms,rhizomes, suckers, slips and runners should beassessed.

Knowledge and skills in vegetative propagationthrough cutting, grafting, budding and layeringare required.

5. Seed bed preparation andcultural practices

Knowledge and skills in the preparation of seedbeds, fertilizer application, mulching, pesticidesapplication, watering, pruning, staking andthinning are required.

Calculation involving plant density/population isrequired.

6. Ornamental plant production

Identification and classification of ornamentalplants should be covered.

7. Common weeds

Identification of common weeds and preparationof weed album;
knowledge of external features;
mode of dispersal; various methods of weedcontrol on the farm are required.

8. Measurement of crop yields

Skill to measure crop yield is required.

E. ANIMALPRODUCTION

1. Common breeds of animalsand the types of animals inWest Africa

Identification of breeds and types of farmanimals is required.

2. Major internal organs of farmAnimals

Identification and function of the major parts ofthe digestive and reproductive systems arerequired.

3. Animal products and byproducts

Identification and uses of animal products andby-products e.g. hides, skins, furs, feathers andhorns should be covered.

4. Animal feeds and their sources

Identification and the uses of animal feed andanimal feedstuffs, types of feedstuffs and feedingredients e.g. fish meal, cakes, rice bran,blood meal, bone meal, wheat bran, oyster shell and salt are required.

5. Main pests and parasites offarm animals

Identification of main ectoparasites e.g. ticks,lice, and endoparasites e.g.
tape worms andround worms as well as damages caused to theirhosts and their control are required.

6. Prevention and control ofdiseases of farm animals

Methods of prevention and control of diseasesof farm animals e.g.
use of drugs, drenching,dipping, spraying, simple methods of farmsanitation will also be assessed.

7. General management practicesin farm animals production

Selection of breeding stock, managementsystems, care of animals, selection of eggs forhatching, egg collection and grading, milking ofanimals, skin branding, debeaking, dehorningand castration should be covered.
Equipment used in common managementpractices in farm animal production e.g.
burdizzo, elastrator, drenching gun, dehornerand debeaker should be assessed.

8. Slaughtering of animals anddressing of the carcasses.

Processes involved in the slaughtering anddressing are required.

9. Stocking and managementpractices in fish farming.

Identification of common species of fish shouldbe covered.
Skills in stocking and managingfish ponds should be assessed.

10. Fish harvesting andpreservation

Skills in processing and preservation of fish arerequired.
Identification of equipment fo r harvesting andpreservation of fish is required.

F. AGRICULTURALECONOMICS ANDEXTENSION

Simple calculations on demandand supply, equilibrium pricedetermination, productionfunction, income andexpenditure account, balancesheet.

Preparation of the profit and loss account andthe balance sheet from a given data is required.

Skills in the drawing and interpretation ofproduction function curves are also required.

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Facts about Teachers

● ● ● Teachers Are Great No Controversy.

● ● ● Teachers are like candles, they burn themselves to light others.

● ● ● Teachers don't teach for the money.

● ● ● Every great mind was once taught by some brilliant teachers.

● ● ● Teachers are the second parents we have.

● ● ● If you can write your name, thank your teacher.

Teaching slogans

● ● ● Until the learner learns the teacher has not taught.

● ● ● I hear and forget, I see and remember, I do and know.

● ● ● The good teacher explains. The superior teacher demonstrates. The great teacher inspires.

We provide educational resources/materials, curriculum guide, syllabus, scheme of work, lesson note & plan, waec, jamb, O-level & advance level GCE lessons/tutorial classes, on various topics, subjects, career, disciplines & department etc. for all the Class of Learners