FISHERIES (ALTERNATIVE B)

(For candidates in Nigeria only)

WAEC SYLLABUS ON FISHERIES (ALTERNATIVE B)

PREAMBLE

This syllabus has been designed to assess Fisheries as a trade for livelihood withemphasis on the acquisition of knowledge and skills in Fisheries and entrepreneurialskills associated with the content.

Candidates will be expected to answer questions on all the topics set out in the columnheaded Syllabus. The notes therein are intended to indicate the scope of the questionswhich will be set, but they are not to be considered as an exhaustive list of limitations andillustrations.

OBJECTIVES OF THE SYLLABUS

The syllabus will therefore seek to assess candidates on:
(1) the importance of fisheries in the socio-economic development of West Africa;
(2) skills in fish farming;
(3) basic entrepreneurial skills in fisheries related vocations;
(4) the effects of water pollution on fishery resources;
(5) fish preservation and processing techniques.

REQUIREMENTS

(1) Schools offering Fisheries must have at least a small glass/plastic tank/aquariumand a fish pond/concrete tank.
(2) The study should be supplemented by visits to well established fish farms,fisheries research institutions, fishing companies and other institutions related tofisheries.
(3) It is recommended that candidates keep practical notebooks which should containrecords of activities based on laboratory and individual observations carried out inglass tanks/aquaria and fish farms, field trips and also records of specimenscollected.
(4) Schools should prepare an album of fishery organisms, fishing gear and craft anddifferent fish rearing facilities and equipment for teaching purposes.

SCHEME OF EXAMINATION


There will be three papers, Papers 1, 2 and 3 all which must be taken. Papers 1 and 2 will be acomposite paper to be taken at one sitting.

PAPER 1:

Will consist of forty multiple choice objective questions all of which should beanswered within 40 minutes for 40 marks.

PAPER 2:

Will consist of six essay questions. Candidates will be required toAnswer four questions within 2 hours for 80 marks.

PAPER 3:

Will be a practical paper for school candidates and alternative to practical workpaper for private candidates. Each version of the paper will consist of fourquestions all of which should be answered within 1½ hours for 60 marks.

Section B:

will be a test of practical work. It shall consist of two compulsory essay questions to be answered in 1 hour for 40 marks.


DETAILED SYLLABUS

TOPICSCONTENTSNOTES

A. BASIC CONCEPTS IN FISHERIES

1. Introduction to Fisheries
(a) Meaning of fisheries.
Explanation of the terms fishery andfisheries. Fisheries refer to all processesinvolved in fish production, processing,marketing and distribution. Fishery is oneaspect of fish production.
(b) Sub-divisions of fisheries. Knowledge of the following is required
(i) Capture fisheries (fishing):
- subsistence fisheries;
- artisanal fisheries;
- industrial fisheries.
(ii) Culture fisheries (aquaculture).
2. Importance of fisheries. Importance of fisheries e.g. food,employment, income generation, socialculturalactivities, aesthetics, medicinal etc.

B. PROCESSES OF FISH PRODUCTION

1. Capture fisheries
(a) Different methods involved incapture fisheries.
Various methods of capture fisheries such ashook and line, cast netting, set netting,trap/trapping, trawling, harpooning shouldbe assessed.
(b) Materials required for capturefisheries and their uses. Assessment should include hooks, cages,knives/cutlasses, traps/basins, spears, castnets, gill nets, seine nets, drag nets.Knowledge of the uses of the materials isrequired.
2. Culture fisheries.
(a) Identification of common qualities ofculturable fish species.
Students should have the knowledge of thequalities of culturable fish species such ashardiness, acceptability of artificial fishfeeds, tolerance to poor water quality,ability to reproduce in captivity.
(b) Identification of common culturablefishery organisms. Students should be able to identify commonculturable fishery organisms such asClariasspp, Tilapia, Heterobranchus,shrimp, sea weeds.
(c) Culture facilities. Assessment should include description ofculture facilities such as ponds, tanks, raceways, cages, pens.

C. TYPES OF FISH CULTUREFACILITIES AND CULTURE SYSTEMS

1. Fish ponds.
(a) Types of fish ponds.
Knowledge of different types of fish ponds:earthen ponds, concrete tanks, plastic tanks,fibre glass tanks etc is required.
(b) Components of fish ponds. Assessment should be limited to thecomponents of fish ponds: inlets, outlets,dykes/embankments/walls, monks andspillways.
2. Systems of aquaculture.
(a) Types of aquaculture.
Explanation of monoculture, poly cultureand integrated fish farming is required.
(b) Management systems in aquaculture. Assessment should include the extensive,intensive and semi intensive systems ofaquaculture management.
3. Water quality control and monitoring.
(a) Definition of water quality.
Conditions of water that promote goodhealth of fishery organisms for survivalshould be assessed
(b) Water quality parameters. Assessment should cover the various waterquality parameters such as dissolved oxygen(DO), pH, temperature, turbidity,conductivity.
(c) Methods of monitoring water quality. Knowledge of the methods used inmonitoring water quality:
DO meter,wrinkler method, pH meter, litmus test etc isrequired.

Knowledge of water pollution should beassessed under the following headings:

- causes (poisons, sewage, debris,household refuse);

- prevention and control.
(e) Optimum water parameter ranges Knowledge of optimum water parameterranges is required:
- DO(5.0 – 8.0 mg/l);
- pH(6.5 – 8.0);
- turbidity (secchi disc measurementless than 30 cm).

D. FISH FEEDS AND FEEDING

1. Fish feed/food materials.
(a) Identification of different fish feed/food materials
Knowledge of natural fish food(phytoplankton and zooplankton) and artificial fish feed should be covered. Aclear distinction between food and feedshould be made.
(b) Nutritive value of fish feed ingredients Assessment should cover energy yieldingingredients (corn, wheat bran, garri, rice branetc.) and protein yielding ingredients (soyabean, fish meal, groundnut cake etc.). Detailsof ration formulation and biochemical detailsare not required.
2. Fish feeding.
(a) Feeding regime for fish.
Knowledge should cover explanation offeeding regime such as 3% - 5 % of fishbody weight based on age/size is required.
(b) Ideal feeding periods for fish. Knowledge of ideal feeding periods based onage/size is required.
(c) Methods of feeding. Assessment should cover feeding methodssuch as broadcasting, spot/point feeding,automated feeding.

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E. FISH POND PREPARATION ANDMANAGEMENT

1. Fish pond construction Assessment would cover site selection;construction of earthen ponds: landmeasurement/mapping, staking, excavation,building of dykes etc; construction ofconcrete ponds: land measurement/mapping,staking, stripping of the top soil, concretebase or casting, building with correctmixtures of sand, gravel and cement etc.
2. Pond preparation
(a) Tools required for pond preparation.
Knowledge of tools such as digger, headpan, cutlass, wheelbarrow, spade, handtrowel is required.
(b) Preparation of ponds for stocking. Knowledge of maintenance activities of oldand new ponds should include:
- flushing of water;
-repair of leakages/cracks;
-liming and fertilization
- drying and cleaning etc.
3. Pond management.
(a) Meaning of pond management.
Assessment should cover monitoring waterquality, daily checking of leakages/seepage,methods of feeding and stocking, stockingrate and time etc.
(b) Pond management practices.

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F. FISH HARVESTING AND POSTHARVESTING PROCESSES

1. Materials and methods for harvesting fish.
(a) Fishing gear
Knowledge of the various fishing gear isrequired.
(b) Construction and mending of fishinggear. Knowledge of the materials used forconstruction and mending of fishing gear isrequired. Details of construction andmending are required.
(c) Methods of fish harvesting. Assessment should cover the variousmethods of harvesting fish
(d) Fishing crafts Knowledge of the various types of fishingcrafts is required.
2. Post-harvest handling of fish
(a) Materials and methods forprocessing fish.
Assessment should cover the differentmethods of fish processing and preservation.
(b) Methods of fish preservation. A clear distinction between fish processingand fish preservation should be made.
(c) Packaging materials for fish Knowledge of the qualities of good breedersshould include hardiness, ability to breed incaptivity, large size, without defects etc.
(d) Marketing channels for fish. Assessment should cover ideal period oftransporting fish; duration in confinementand careful handling of brood stock.

G. FISH SEED PRODUCTION

1. Brood stock selection and handling.
a) Differences between male and femalesexually matured fishes.
Assessment should cover:
the meaning ofartificial breeding as ‘manipulating thesexually matured fish to spawn or reproducein captivity’;
importance of artificialbreeding such as to:
- obtain high quality hybrids;
- obtain large quantity of fish seed;
- make fingerlings readilyavailable.
(b) Qualities of good breeders.
(c) Ways of handling brood stock Brood stock selection, conditioning,inducement, stripping, fertilization andincubation of fertilized eggs should be assessed.
2. Artificial breeding
(a) Meaning and importance of artificialbreeding.
(b) Steps involved in artificial breeding offishes. (b) Steps involved in artificial breeding offishes.
(c) Equipment and materials used in theartificial breeding of fish Assessment should cover knowledge ofequipment and materials such as basins,happa net, hatching troughs, syringes,aquaria tanks, microscope.
3. Managing and nursing fish seed Assessment should include maintainingoptimum water condition (aeration), feedingwith natural food organisms (plankton),introduction of artificial feed based on size,separation of dead/unfertilized eggs fromhatchlings, transferring to production/growoutponds/tanks, sorting of shooters/jumpersetc.

PRACTICAL FISHERIES

TOPIC.CONTENTSNOTE
A. FISH CULTURE

1. Environmental conditions in fishhabitats.

Measurement of environmental conditions isrequired: temperature, dissolved oxygen, pHand turbidity.

2. Tools and equipment used in fishculture.

Identification, uses and maintenance of fishery tools and equipment e.g. secchi disc,water pump, pelleting machine, aerators.

3. Common culturable fish species.

Identification of common culturable fishspecies in your country is required.Knowledge of scientific names is required.

4. Fish feed and materials.

Identification of types of fish feed and usesof fish feed materials is required.

5. Materials for pond preparation

Identification and uses of materials for pondpreparation: lime , fertilizers etc is required
B. FISHING GEAR AND CRAFT

1. Fishing gear.

Identification, description and uses of fishinggear e.g. gill net, cast net, seine, traps.Identification of parts and their functionsshould be assessed. Maintenance of fishinggear is also required.

2. Fishing craft.

Identification, description, uses andmaintenance of fishing craft should beassessed.
C. FISH PROCESSING ANDPRESERVATION

1. Fish processing and preservation.

Assessment should include the identificationof common processed and preserved fish;identification and uses of commonprocessing and preservation methods.

2. Equipment used in fish processing andpreservation.

Identification and uses of fish processingequipment e.g. knives, measuring bowls,weighing balances, hand gloves; fishpreservation equipment e.g. freezer, smokingkiln.

3. Fish products and by-products.

Identification and uses of fish products andby-products e.g. fish scales, fish oil, fishskin.

4. Fish packaging materials.

Identification of fish packaging materials e.g.fish boxes, nylon, baskets, cardboard

LIST OF FACILITIES AND MAJOR EQUIPMENT

ITEM NO.EQUIPMENTQUANTITY REQUIRED
1 .

DO(Dissolved Oxygen) meter

2
2 .

pH meter

2
3 .

Conductivity meter

2
4 .

Thermometer

50
5 .

Water Test Kits

2
6 .

Microscopes

4
7 .

Magnifying Glass

30
8 .

Aquaria Tanks

5
9 .

Hatching Troughs

5
10.

Nursery Tanks/Ponds

3
11.

Demonstration Ponds

1 or more

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12.

Scoop Nets

10
13.

Aerators and Accessories

10
14.

Plastic Sieves

10
15.

Compounded Feeds

Many bags
16.

Grinding Machines

2
17.

Charts and Pictures

Assorted
18.

Video Clips in Fisheries

Assorted
19.

Pelleting Machine

1
20.

Dissection Kits

2
21.

Water Pumps

2
22.

Secchi Disc

2
23.

Model Gillnet

1
24.

Model Cast net

1
25.

Model Siene net

1
26.

Model traps

Assorted
27.

Model hooks and line

2
28.

Model trawl net

1
29.

Netting materials

Assorted
30.

Hooks packets

20(nos 1-20)
31.

Nylon ropes

1
32.

Mounting twine

1
33.

Canoe

1
34.

Paddles

2
35.

Gutting knives

10
36.

Measuring boards

5
37.

Weighing balances

2
38.

Hand gloves

30
39.

Freezers

2
40.

Ovens

2
41.

Kilns

2
42.

Fish drying racks

2
43.

Fish boxes

5
44.

Salting trays/basins

5
45.

Sun-drying mats

5
46.

Cardboards box

5
47.

Nylon

10(bundles)
48.

Baskets

10

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