CROP HUSBANDRY AND HORTICULTURE

WAEC SYLLABUS ON CROP HUSBANDRY AND HORTICULTURE

PREAMBLE:

The examination syllabus has been structured, based on the teaching syllabus, to assesscandidates’knowledge and skills in the production, processing, storage, marketing and uses of arable,plantation and horticultural crops. It will also assess the knowledge and skills of candidates inlandscaping and other vocations in crop husbandry.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:

The syllabus is designed to provide a comprehensive assessment of candidates’ knowledge and skills inrelation to:
(1) the factors that affect crop production;
(2) the botany of various arable, plantation and horticultural crops;
(3) the propagation and cultivation of various arable, plantation and horticultural crops;
(4) the effective management of crop-based enterprises;
(5) the processing, preservation,storage,transportation, marketing and use of crops;
(6) the management of basic problems associated with crop cultivation;
(7) landscaping, home gardening and interior decoration;
(8) the socio-economic importance of crops.

REQUIREMENTS:

(1) Schools offering Crop Husbandry and Horticulture are expected to keep farms andcompounds or attach students to established farms where a variety of arable andhorticultural crops are grown and maintained.
(2) It is recommended that schools should have laboratories, workshops, farm tools andequipment, and study materials such as specimens, chemicals and seeds.
(3) It is also recommended that candidates keep practical notebooks, farm diaries and weedalbums. These should contain records of individual activities, based on laboratory andfield observations.


EXAMINATION SCHEME


There will be three papers, Papers 1, 2 and 3 all of which must be taken. Papers 1 and 2will be a composite paper to be taken at one sitting.

PAPER 1:

Will consist of fifty multiple choice objective questions all of which must beanswered within 1 hour for 50 marks.

PAPER 2:

Will consist of six essay-type questions. Candidates will be required toanswer four questions within 2 hours for 80 marks.

PAPER 2:

Will be a practical paper for school candidates or alternative to practical testpaper for private candidates. Each version will consist of four questions allof which must be answered within 2 hours for 60 marks.


DETAILED SYLLABUS



TOPICSCONTENTSNOTES

A. CULTIVATION OF FIELD CROPS.

1. Factors affecting crop production.
The effects of solar radiation, temperature,rainfall,wind, edaphic, biotic, and inorganicelements on crop growth, development and yieldis required.
2. Characteristics andimportance of fieldcrops.
Understanding of the term field crops,knowledge of their characteristics, knowledge ofthe common and scientific names of commonfield crops, and classification of field crops basedon the uses and life cycles are required.
The groups based on uses are as follows:

Staple food crops
1. Cereals (maize, rice, sorghum, millet,wheat, etc.)
2. Grain legumes (cowpea, groundnut,bambara groundnut, soya bean, limabean, pigeon pea, broad bean,jack bean, sword bean, winged bean,etc.)
3. Root and tuber crops (cassava, sweetpotato, yam, cocoyam, Irish potato), and
4. Plantains.

Special purpose field crops
1. Fibre crops (cotton, jute, kenaf, roselle,sisal hemp)
2. Spice crops (ginger, black pepper)
3. Sugar crops (sugar cane)
4. Oil crops (sunflower)
5. Medicinal crops (moringa, aloe)
6. Aromatic crops (citronella, lemon grass)
7. Fumitories (tobacco)
8. Masticatories (tiger nut)
The groups based on life cycle areAnnuals, Biennials andPerennials.
3. Distribution of field crops in West Africa.
The effects of climatic, soil, socio-cultural andbiological factors on the distribution of fieldcrops is required.
4. Breeding of field crops:
(a) Selection of goodplanting material.
Knowledge of the characteristics and sources ofgood planting materials such as seeds andvegetative materials is required.
(b) Techniques fordeveloping and maintainingimprovedvarieties.
Methods of crop improvement such asintroduction, selection and hybridization andtechniques for maintaining improved varietiesare required.
(c) Seed productionand marketing.
Factors influencing seed production, methods ofseed production, processing, storage andmarketing, qualities of good seed, and factorsaffecting seed viability are required.
5. Production of cereal crops:
(a) Classification,botanical attributesand distribution ofcereal crops inWest Africa.
The major types of cereal crops (maize, millet,sorghum, and rice), their geographicaldistribution in West Africa, their classification(family, genus, species and varieties), themorphological characteristics of the roots, leaves,flowers and seeds, and the cross-sectional partsof seeds is required.
(b) Land preparation,planting, culturalpractices.
Land preparation activities, sowing/transplantingand cultural practices like supplying, thinning,weeding, irrigation, fertilizer application, pestsand diseases and their control will be assessed.
NB: Knowledge of the life cycle of the stemborer (Busseolafusca) is required.
(c) Harvesting,processing andstorage.
Knowledge of signs of maturity, harvesting,processing for storageand methods of storage will be assessed.
(d) Uses, value chains and marketing.
The uses of cereals; and importance of valuechains in the production and marketing of cerealswill be assessed.
6. Production ofleguminous crops:(a) Classification,botanicalattributes anddistribution ofleguminous cropsin West Africa.
The major types of leguminous crops (cowpea,groundnut and soya bean), their geographicaldistribution in West Africa, their classification(family, genus, species and varieties) will beassessed.
(b) Land preparation,planting andcultural practices.
Skills in land preparation, sowing/transplantingand cultural practices like seed selection andsowing, supplying, thinning, weeding, fertilizerapplication, pests and diseases and their controlwill be assessed.
NB: Knowledge of the life cycle of the bruchid(Callosobruchusmaculatus) is required.
(c) Harvesting,processing andstorage.
Signs of maturity, harvesting, processing forstorage and methods of storage will be assessed.
(d) Uses, value chainsand marketing.
The uses of legumes; and importance of valuechains in the production and marketing oflegumes will be assessed.
7. Production of rootand tuber crops:(a) Introduction
Differences between root and tuber crops, theirmorphological and anatomical features withemphasis on the storage organs, classification(family, genus and species) varieties andcultivars of cassava and sweet potato and thedifferent species of yams and cocoyam is required.The species of yam to be considered are as listedbelow:
Species of yam:
Dioscorearotundata (Guinea yam)
Dioscoreaalata (Water yam)
Dioscoreacayenensis (Yellow yam)
Dioscoreadumentorum (Bitter yam)
Dioscoreaesculenta (Chinese yam/Trifoliateyam)
Dioscoreabulbifera (Aerial yam)
Dioscoreapraehensilis (Bush yam)
Species of cocoyam
Xanthosomasaggitifolium (Tania)
Colocassiaesculenta (Taro)
(b) Climatic and soilrequirements.
The climatic and soil requirements for growingthe root and tuber crops will be assessed.
(c) Land preparation,planting and culturalpractices.
Method of land preparation i.e. slash and burn,mounding, ridging etc., the planting materials(stem/vines, cuttings, setts, minisetts, microsetts,bulbils, suckers, tissue culture, plantlets etc.), andthe techniques for producing the various plantingmaterials for root and tuber crops are required.

Recommended spacing and correct orientation ofplanting materials, cultural practices such asstaking and training, remounding, weeding,fertilizer application, diseases and pests and theircontrol are also required.
(d) Harvesting,postharvesthandling and uses.
Signs of maturity , methods of harvesting such asdouble and piece meal harvesting and harvestingprecautions, post-havest handling suc aspreservation, storage methods, processing andvarious uses will be assessed.

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8. Production of cotton:
(a) Introduction
Assessment will cover classification (from family to species), morphological features (root,leaf, stem, fruit and seed) climatic, soilrequirement and distribution of cotton in WestAfrica.
(b) Land preparation,sowing and cultural practices
Assessment will cover methods of landpreparation and cultural practices such asploughing, irrigation, pests and diseases andtheir control.

Knowledge of the life cycle of the cottonstainer(Dysdercusspp). and how it can be usedto formulate control measures will berequired.
(c) Harvesting andprocessing
Harvesting and processingactivities (ginning and grading) will be assessed.
9. Prodction of sugarcane:
(a) Introduction
Knowledge of the different species(Saccharumofficinarum,Saccharumbarberi,Saccharmsinense,Saccharumedula), their morphologicalcharacteristics and botanical classification(family, genus, species) and the soil, rainfall andwaterrequirements will be assessed.
(b) Land preparation,planting andcultural practices.
Land preparation methods such as clearing,ploughing, harrowing and ridging will beassessed. Propagating materials (short setts, longsetts and soldier setts), planting space, andcultural practices such as weed control,earthingup,fertilizer application and the identification ofthe major factors that affect the quality of canewill be assessed.
(c) Harvesting
Knowledge of signs of maturity, optimumharvesting time, method of harvesting, frequencyof harvesting (ratoon) and the various stages ofsugar cane extraction will be assessed.
(d) Processing andUses
Description of the processing stages(crushing/milling, clarification, concentration,crystallization and refining) and precautions toensure maximum sugar yield during extractionare required.
Knowledge of the uses of products and byproductsof sugar are also required
10. Cultivation of fruitcrops:
(a) Types,characteristicsand geographicaldistribution of fruitcrops in West Africa.
Knowledge of botanical names of various typesof tropical and sub-tropical fruits is required.This will include citrus, pineapple, mango,banana, avocado pear, pawpaw, shea, miraculousberry, hog plum, apple, grapes etc. Assessmentwill also cover knowledge of the characteristics,the environmental requirements and geographicaldistribution of fruit crops in West Africa.
(b) Land preparationand nurserypractices.
Assessment will be on knowledge andunderstanding of land preparation methods, prenurseryand nursery practices such as budding,grafting, potting, soil sterilization, shading,roguing, hardening, fertilizer application, pestand disease control, irrigation etc.
(c) Transplanting andfield maintenance.
Cultural practices in the field such astransplanting methods and processes e.g. liningand pegging, planting pattern, planting at stakeand transplanting etc, and field care such asfertilizer application, mulching, weed control,pests and diseases and their control will beassessed.
(d) Harvesting andpost-harvesthandling.
Signs of maturity, method of harvesting,precautions, equipment for harvesting, postharvesthandling e. g. sorting, grading andpackaging; pests and diseases and their controlwill be assessed.
(e) Marketing
Candidates will be assessed on marketingchannels, quality and safety standards.The importance of value chains in the productionand marketing of fruit crops will also beassessed.
11. Production of Treecrops:(a) Types, characteristics,classification andimportance of treecrops.
The types (based on their uses), scientific namesand botanical characteristics is required.
(b) Geographical distribution,environmentalrequirements andadaptations
The geographical distribution in West Africa and the adaptations of various tree crops is required.
(c) Seed dormancy
Causes of seed dormancy and methods to breakdormancy will be assessed.
(d) Land preparationand techniques ofraising andmanagement oftree crops.
Assessment will be on land preparation methods,pre-nursery and nursery practices such asbudding, grafting, potting, soil sterilization,shading, weed management, mulching, shading,roguing, fertilizer application, pest and diseasecontrol, irrigation etc.
(e) Harvesting andpost-harvesthandling.
Signs of maturity, methods of harvesting,precautions, equipment for harvesting, pests anddiseases and their control; Post-harvest activitiessuch as dehusking, hulling, fermentation,canning, drying, coagulation, smoking etc. willbe assessed.
(f) Marketing
Candidates will be assessed on marketingchannels, quality and safety standards.

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12. Production of specifictree crops:
(a) Classification,botanicalattributes anddistribution ofspecific tree cropsin West Africa.
The major types of tree crops (cocoa, cashew,coconut and oil palm), their geographicaldistribution in West Africa, their classification(family, genus, species and varieties);morphological characteristics of the roots,leaves, flowers and seeds, and the cross-sectionalparts of seeds will be assessed.
Land preparation, nursery practices, plantingmethods and patterns, cultural practices, pests(including the life cycle of cocoa capisds/ mirids)and diseases and their control will be assessed.
(b) Land preparation,planting and culturalpractices.
Signs of maturity, harvesting tools and steps inusing the tools, harvesting, handling procedures,grading, processing of each tree crop produceinto industrial products and storage method(s)will be assessed.
(c) Harvesting,processing andstorage.
The uses, nutritional and economic importance,tree crop value chains and the quality and safetystandards for marketing in the tree crop industryis required.
(d) Uses, value chainsand marketing.

B. PRODUCTION OF VEGETABLES

(a) Types, characteristics,nutritional andeconomic importance.
Assessment will cover knowledge of the varioustypes of vegetable crops (based on uses and lifecycle) and their characteristics. Scientific namesof vegetables including cabbage, Africanspinach, Indian spinach, cocoyam, lettuce,talinum, cauliflower, tomatoes, pepper, gardeneggs, cucumber, water melon, okro, sweetpepper, French beans, agushi, lima bean, shallot,onion, carrot and radish will be assessed.Skills in making biological drawings ofeconomic parts of vegetables and knowledge ofthe nutritional and socio-economic importance ofvegetables will be assessed.
(b) Production systemsand croppingpatterns ofvegetable crops inWest Africa.
Features and skills required in the various typesof vegetable production systems (backyardgarden/home garden, market garden, truckfarming, production for processing, irrigatedvegetable farming, dry season farming, vegetableseed production and hydronics gardening) will beassessed.

Assessment will also be based on variouscropping patterns which include crop rotation,inter-cropping, succession cropping, relaycropping and phased cropping as well asadvantages and disadvantages of each pattern.
(c) Environmentalrequirements.
The climatic and soil factors is required.
(d) Site selection andland preparation.
Assessment will be based on the criteria for siteselection for vegetable enterprise and skills fordeveloping vegetable crop farms, landpreparation methods (raised and sunken beds,ridges and flat), themerits and demerits of various land preparationmethods and justification for the methodsselected.
(e) Nursery and fieldpractices.
Reasons for and skills in undertaking nurserypractices such as seed box/bed preparationincluding soil sterilization, drilling, pricking out,hardening off, transplanting, etc and fieldpractices including supplying,watering/irrigation, thinning, mulching, staking,weed management, fertilizer application,pruning, pest and disease control will beassessed.
(f) Harvesting andpost-harvesthandling ofvegetable crops.
The signs of maturity, equipment used forharvesting, precautions, methods and skills usedin harvesting and post-harvest handling such astrimming, washing, removal of malformed anddamaged vegetables, grading etc. Knowledgepreservation and processing methods such asdrying, curing, milling, pasteurization,refrigeration, pickling, canning etc. will beassessed.
(g) Quality and safetystandards invegetableproduction.
Assessment will be based on the procedures andskills in maintaining food quality and safetystandards – external quality: shelf life,appearance -colour, shape etc, and internalquality: taste, nutritive value etc.
(h) Vegetable seedproduction andmarketing.
The various methods of extraction and storageof seeds of pulpy fruits and dry fruits; labelling,pricing etc. and marketing will be assessed.

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C. PRODUCTION OFSPECIFICAEGETABLECROPS

(a) Classification, types,environmentalrequirements andland preparation methods.
Assessment will be on classification of tomato,cabbage, carrot, French bean, lettuce andcauliflower into family, genus, species, varietiesand cultivars. Types of vegetables based onbotany; (i) Leafy vegetables - cabbage andlettuce;(ii) Floral vegetables - cauliflower; (iii)Fruit vegetables - tomatoes, pepper, garden eggs,okro; (iv) Pod and seed vegetables - Frenchbeans and agushi, (melon seed) and (v)Vegetables with fleshy storage structures - onionand carrot.

The environmental requirements and landpreparation methods, nursery practices (ifapplicable), spacing, transplanting/planting methods for individual crops will be examined.
(b) Nursery and culturalpractices.
Assessment will be based on knowledge andskills in planning and carrying out all therequired nursery and cultural practices such asbed preparation and soil sterilization, seeddrilling, irrigation/watering, shading, mulching,and transplanting, fertilizer application etc.
(c) Harvesting andpost-harvesthandling.
Candidates will be assessed on the signs ofmaturity, equipment used forharvesting,precautions and skills in methods used inharvesting and post-harvest handling of eachvegetable (fresh or dried). Knowledge andunderstanding of parameters and procedures foryield determination will also be assessed.

Assessment will be based on how quality andsafety standards are to be maintained e.g.grading, packaging, transporting to local marketsand factors to be considered in pricing harvestedvegetable products etc.
(d) Quality and safetystandards invegetableproduction and roles ofactors and players.
Assessment will also be based on value chains invegetable production, the roles of variousactors/players in the supply of vegetables,description of marketing procedures of avegetable crop in a local market and a foreignmarket (e.g. European market).

D. RAISINGORNAMENTALPLANTS

(a) Types and functionsof ornamentalplants.
Knowledge of the types of ornamental plantsbased on their uses and growth habits i.e.Outdoor plants (grouped into bedding plants,shrub plants, climbing plants, ground cover andwater plants); and Indoor plants, will be assessed.The scientific names and functions of ornamentalplants will also be assessed.
(b) Propagation ofornamental plants.
Candidates will be assessed on of the methods of propagation by seeds and vegetative means,media and containers for propagation.and alsocollection, purification and cleaning andmaintenance of seed viability; and nursing orplanting at stake.
(c) House plants:
(i) Types and uses
(ii) Selecting houseplants for specificuses.
(iii) Management ofhouse plants:
Tools,Containersand Management,practices.
(iv) Marketing
Knowledge of the types of house plants based onthe morphological features and position in thehouse is required.

Assessment will be based the selection andplacement of house plants and containers.

The uses of tools, containers and managementpractices such as provision of light, air, water,fertilizer application; pruning and trimming; pestand disease control, cleaning and polishing willbe required

Assessment will be based the factors ofproduction, demand and supply, packaging,pricing and transport.
(d) Establishment andmanagement of lawngrasses.
Assessment will be based on knowledge of thecharacteristics and importance of lawns, plantingmaterials, methods of propagation, common lawngrasses, site preparation and maintenancepractices such as watering, weeding and spiking.
(e) Establishment andmanagement ofhedges.
Assessment will be based on common hedgingplants and their characteristics; the importance ofhedges, planting materials, methods ofpropagation, site preparation and maintenancepractices such as watering, weeding andpruning.
(f) Establishment andmanagement of beds andborders.
Assessment will be based on knowledge ofcommon bed and border plants, the differencesbetween beds and borders and hedges andborders; principles underlying establishing bedsand borders; Management practices includingselection of appropriate plants for beds andborders, planting materials, methods ofpropagation, common bed and border plants andsite preparation and maintenance practices suchas watering, weeding and pruning.

E. LANDSCAPING

(a) Meaning and importanceof landscaping.
Knowledge and understanding of the concept andimportance of landscaping (conservation,beautification, screening, forest reserve/greenbelt and wind break) are required.
(b) Components andprinciples oflandscape design.
The differences between the components and theroles of the components (materials) such aslandform, plant materials, water, sculpture andstone work, garden boundaries and groundpattern will be assessed.

Knowledge and understanding of the principlesof design (unity, scale, time, space division,texture, light and shade, tone and colour, style,line, variety, balance, repetition, balance,emphasis etc.) will be assessed.

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F. VOCATIONS IN CROPHUSBANDRY ANDHORTICULTURE.

(a) Vocations and tasksin Crop Husbandryand Horticulture.
Assessment will be based on knowledge ofvocations available in Crop Husbandry andHorticulture and the tasks involved.Tasks in occupations such as Produce Marketing,Exporting, Importing, Providing Services andSupplies, etc taking into consideration theeducational qualifications, training, resources etcrequired to perform the tasks; and the benefitsderived from the jobs.
(b) Role of vocations
Candidates will be assessed on their ability todiscuss the importance of vocations to theindividual, community and nation.
(c) Establishments ofenterprises
Candidates will be assessed on their ability toanalyze the factors, resources and procedures(development of a business plan, registration ofbusiness etc.) required to establish enterprises.

PRACTICAL SYLLABUS

S/NoCONTENTSNOTES
1.

Introduction to CropProduction

Ability to identify, classify and makebiological diagrams of parts and sections ofand of whole plants is required.

Knowledge of use of field crops, vegetables,fruit of crops, tree crops and ornamental plantis required.

Ability to identify farm tools and equipment,and knowledge of the uses and maintenanceof general and specialized farm tools andequipment are also required.

Ability to determine soil physical propertiese.g. structure, texture: and chemical propertiese.g. pH, salinity are required.
2.

Nursery Practices

Ability to identify and prepare containers andmedia for propagation and knowledge ofmethods of propagation including buddingand grafting are required.

Ability to carry out seed tests such asgermination, health and purity tests; undertakepractices such as drilling, broadcasting, sowing, pricking out, thinning, application ofpesticides and starter solutions, hardening offand transplanting are required.
3.

Field Practices
(a) Land preparationand Planting

Knowledge of types of seed beds; seed rate,planting materials, planting methods andcropping calendar is required.Ability to calculate and interpret data onspacing and plant density is required.

(b) Fiertilizers

Types of fertilizer and methods of applicationof organic and inorganic fertilizers e.g.granules, foliar,banding and broadcasting isrequired.

(c) Weeds

Identification of weeds, their ecologicaladaptations, and weed control measures e.g.cover cropping, mulching, herbicideapplication (types of herbicides) etc. isrequired.

(d) Pests and Diseases

Ability to identify pests and diseases;symptoms and effects of disease on host; lifecycle of economic insects e.g. stem borer;Control measures for pests and diseases,including calibration of spraying equipment,types of pesticides and pesticide formulationare required.

(e) Irrigation

Types, uses and maintenance of irrigationequipment and parts e.g. watering can,watering hose, sprinklers, laterals and waterpump is required.
4.

Harvesting and PostharvestHandling

Signs of maturity; methods of harvesting, seedextraction, processing and storage; grading ofproduce and products of arable, plantation andhorticultural crops and the ability to estimateyield of crops are required.
5.

Record keeping

Knowledge of types and uses of farm records;and ability to take/keep records on the farmare required.
6.

Landscaping andOrnamentalHorticulture

Knowledge of various components used fordesigning landscape; Identification ofornamental plants, and their uses; knowledge and skills in the use of tools, equipment,containers, media, etc for ornamentalhorticulture are required.

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