CHEMISTRY

WAEC SYLLABUS ON CHEMISTRY

INTRODUCTION:

This syllabus is drawn purposely for examination, hence the topics are not necessarily arranged in the order in which they should be taught.

The following assumptions were made in drawing of the syllabus:
(1) That candidates must have covered the Integrated Science/Basic Science or GeneralScience and Mathematics syllabuses at the Junior Secondary School (JSS)/Junior HighSchool (J.H.S) level;

(2) That candidates would carry out as many of the suggested activities and project work aspossible, and consequently develop the intended competencies and skills as spelt out inthe relevant Chemistry teaching syllabuses;

(3) That schools which offer the subject have well-equipped laboratories.

Note: Candidates are required to have the knowledge of the significant figures, S.I.units and the conventional/IUPAC system of nomenclature.

AIMS:

The aims and objectives of the syllabus are to assess candidates’
(1) understanding of basic chemistry concepts;

(2) level of acquisition of laboratory skills including awareness of hazards and safetymeasures;

(3) level of awareness of the inter-relationship between chemistry and other discipline;

(4) level of awareness of the linkage between chemistry and industry/environment/everydaylife in terms of benefits and hazards;

(5) skills of critical and logical thinking.

EXAMINATION SCHEME


There shall be three papers - Papers 1, 2 and 3 all of which must be taken. Paper 1 and 2shall be a composite paper to be taken at one sitting.


PAPER 1:

Will consist of fifty multiple choice objective questions drawn from Section A ofthe syllabus (ie the portion of the syllabus which is common to all candidates) .Candidates will be required to answer all the questions within 1 hour for 50marks.

PAPER 2:

Will be a 2-hour essay paper covering the entire syllabus and carrying 100 marks. The paper will be in two sections; Sections A and B.

Section A:

Will consist of ten short structured questions drawn from the common portion of the syllabus. (i.e. Section A of the syllabus). Candidates will be required to answer all the questions for 25marks.

Section B:

Will consist of two questions from the common portion of thesyllabus (i.e. Section A of the syllabus) and two other questionsfrom the section of the syllabus which is perculiar to the country ofthe candidate (i.e. either Section B or C of the syllabus).Candidates will be required to answer any three of the questions.Each question shall carry 25 marks.

PAPER 3:

This shall be a 2-hour practical test for school candidates or 1 hour30 minutes alternative to practical work test for private candidates. Eachversion of the paper shall contain three compulsory questions and carry 50marks.

The questions shall be on the following aspects of the syllabus:

- One question on quantitative analysis;

- One question on qualitative analysis;

- The third question shall test candidates’ familiarity with thepractical activities suggested in their teaching syllabuses.

Details of the input into the continuous assessment shall be given by the Council.



SECTION A

(For all candidates)


TOPICCONTENTNOTES

1.0 INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY

(a) (i) Measurement of physical quantities.
(ii) Scientific measurements and theirimportance in chemistry.
(1) Measurement of mass, length, time,temperature and volume.

(2) Appropriate SI units and significantfigures.

(3) Precision and accuracy inmeasurement.
(b) Scientific MethodsOutline the scientific method to include:Observation, hypothesis,experimentation, formulation of lawsand theories.

2.0 STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM

(a) Gross features of the atom.(1) Short account of Dalton’s atomictheory and limitations, J.J.Thompson’s experiment and Bohr’smodel of the atom.

(2) Outline description of theRutherford’s alpha scatteringexperiment to establish the structureof the atom.
(b) (i) Atomic number/proton number,number of neutrons, isotopes, atomicmass, mass number.Meaning and representation in symbols ofatoms and sub-atomic particles.
(ii) Relative atomic mass (Ar) andrelative molecular mass (Mr) basedon Carbon-12 scale.(1) Atomic mass as the weighted averagemass of isotopes. Calculation ofrelative mass of chlorine should beused as an example.

(2) Carbon-12 scale as a unit ofmeasurement.Definition of atomic mass unit.
(iii) Characteristics andnature of matter.Atoms, molecules and ions.Definition of particles and treatment ofparticles as building blocks of matter.
(c) Particulate nature of mater: physical andchemical changes.Explain physical and chemical changeswith examples.Physical change- melting of solids,magnetization of iron, dissolution of saltetc.Chemical change- burning of wood,rusting of iron, decay of leaves etc.
(d) (i) Electron ConfigurationDetailed electron configurations (s,p,d)for atoms of the first thirty elements.
(ii) OrbitalsOrigin of s,p and d orbitals as sub-energylevels; shapes of s and p orbitals only.
(iii) Rules and principlesfor filling in electrons.(1) Aufbau Principle, Hund’s Rule ofMaximum Multiplicity and PauliExclusion Principle.

(2) Abbreviated and detailed electronconfiguration in terms of s, p, and d.

3.0 STANDARD SEPARATION TECHNIQUES FOR MIXTURES

(a) Classification of mixtures.Solid-solid, solid-liquid, liquid-liquid,gas-gas with examples.
(b) Separation techniquesCrystallization, distillation, precipitation,magnetization, chromatography,sublimation etc.
(c) Criteria for purity.Boiling point for liquids and meltingpoint for solids.

4.0 PERIODIC CHEMISTRY

(a) Periodicity of the elements.Electron configurations leading to groupand periodic classifications.
(b) Different categories of elements in theperiodic table.Metals, semi-metals, non-metals in theperiodic table and halogens. Alkalimetals, alkaline earth metals andtransition metals as metals.
(c) Periodic law:Explanation of the periodic law.
(i) Trends on periodic table;Periodic properties; atomic size, ionicsize, ionization energy, electron affinityand electronegativity.Simple discrepancies should beaccounted for in respect to beryllium,boron, oxygen and nitrogen.
(ii) Periodic gradation of the elements inthe third period (Na - Ar).(1) Progression from:
(i) metallic to non-metallic characterof element;

(ii) ionic to covalent bonding incompounds.

(2) Differences and similarities in theproperties between the second and thethird period elements should bestated.
(d) Reactions between acids and metals,their oxides and trioxocarbonates (IV).(1) Period three metals (Na, Mg, Al).

(2) Period four metals (K, Ca).

(3) Chemical equations.

(4) pH of solutions of the metallic oxidesand trioxocarbonates.
(e) Periodic gradation of elements in groupseven, the halogens: F, Cl, Br and I.Recognition of group variations notingany anomalies.
Treatment should include the following:
(a) physical states, melting and boilingpoints;

(b) variable oxidation states;

(c) redox properties of the elements;

(d) displacement reaction of one halogenby another;

(e) reaction of the elements with waterand alkali (balanced equationsrequired).
(f) Elements of the first transition series.21Sc – 30Zn(1) Their electron configurations,physical properties and chemicalreactivity of the elements and theircompounds.

(2) Physical properties should include:physical states, metallic propertiesand magnetic properties.

(3) Reactivity of the metals with air,water, acids and comparison with sblockelements (Li, Na, Be, Mg).

(4) Other properties of transition metalsshould include:
(a) variable oxidation states;

(b) formation of colouredcompounds;

(c) complex formation;

(d) catalytic abilities;

(e) paramagnetism;

(f) hardness.

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5.0 CHEMICAL BONDS

(a) Interatomic bondingMeaning of chemical bonding.Lewis dot structure for simple ionic andcovalent compounds.
(b) (i) Formation of ionic bonds andcompounds.Formation of stable compounds fromions. Factors influencing formation:ionzation energy; electron affinity andelectronegativity difference.
(ii) Properties of ionic compounds.Solubility in polar and non-polarsolvents, electrical conductivity, hardnessand melting point.
(c) Naming of ionic compounds.IUPAC system for simple ioniccompounds.
(d) Formation of covalent bonds andcompounds.Factors influencing covalent bondformation. Electron affinity, ionizationenergy, atomic size and electronegativity.
(e) (i) Properties of covalent compounds.Solubility in polar and non-polarsolvents, melting point, boiling point andelectrical conductivity.
(ii) Coordinate (dative) covalent bonding.Formation and difference between purecovalent and coordinate (dative) covalentbonds.
(f) Shapes of molecular compounds.Linear, planar, tetrahedral and shapes forsome compounds e.g. BeCl2, BF3, CH4,NH3, CO2.
(g) (i) Metallic Bonding

(ii) Factors influencing its formation.
Factors should include: atomic radius,ionization energy and number of valenceelectrons. Types of specific packing notrequired.
(iii) Properties of metals.Typical properties including heat andelectrical conductivity, malleability,lustre, ductility, sonority and hardness.
(h) (i) Inter molecular bonding

(ii) Intermolecular forces in covalentcompounds.

(iii) Hydrogen bonding.

(iii) van der Waals forces
Relative physical properties of polar andnon-polar compounds.Description of formation and natureshould be treated.Dipole-dipole, induced dipole-dipole,induced dipole-induced dipole forcesshould be treated under van der Waal’sforces.
(iv) Comparison of all bond types.Variation of the melting points andboiling points of noble gases, halogensand alkanes in the homologous seriesexplained in terms of van der Waal’sforces; and variation in the boiling pointsof H2O, and H2S explained usingHydrogen bonding.

6.0 STOICHIOMETRY AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS

(a) (i) Symbols, formulae and equations.Symbols of the first thirty elements andother common elements that are notamong the first thirty elements.
(ii) chemical symbols

(iii) Empirical and molecular formulae.
Calculations involving formulae andequations will be required. Mass andvolume relationships in chemicalreactions and the stoichiometry of suchreactions such as: calculation ofpercentage composition of element.
(iv) Chemical equations and IUPACnames of chemical compounds.(1) Combustion reactions (includingcombustion of simple hydrocarbons)

(2) Synthesis

(3) Displacement or replacement

(4) Decomposition

(5) Ionic reactions
(v) Laws of chemical combination.(1) Laws of conservation of mass.

(2) Law of constant composition.

(3) Law of multiple proportions.

Explanation of the laws to balancegiven equations.

(4) Experimental illustration of the lawof conservation of mass.
(b) Amount of substance.(1) Mass and volume measurements.

(2) The mole as a unit of measurement;
Avogadro’s constant, L= 6.02 x 1023entities mol-1.

(3) Molar quantities and their uses.

(4) Moles of electrons, atoms, molecules,formula units etc.
(c) Mole ratiosUse of mole ratios in determiningstoichiometry of chemical reactions.Simple calculations to determine thenumber of entities, amount of substance,mass, concentration, volume andpercentage yield of product.
(d) (i) Solutions(1) Concept of a solution as made up ofsolvent and solute.

(2) Distinguishing between dilutesolution and concentrated solution.

(3) Basic, acidic and neutral solutions.
(ii) Concentration termsMass (g) or moles (mol) per unit volume.Emphasis on current IUPAC chemicalterminology, symbols and conventions.Concentration be expressed as massconcentration, g dm-3, molarconcentration, mol dm-3.
(iii) Standard solutions.(1) Preparation of some primarystandards e.g anhydrous Na2CO3,(COOH)2, 2H2O/H2C2O4.2H2O.

(2) Meanning of the terms primarystandard, secondary standard andstandard solution.
(e) Preparation of solutions from liquidsolutes by the method of dilution.Dilution factor

7.0 STATES OF MATTER

(a) (i) Kinetic theory of matter.(1) Postulates of the kinetic theory ofmatter.

(2) Use of the kinetic theory to explainthe following processes: melting ofsolids, boiling of liquids, evaporationof liquids, dissolution of solutes,Brownian motion and diffusion.
(ii) Changes of state of matter.(1) Changes of state of matter should beexplained in terms of movement ofparticles. It should be emphasized thatrandomness decreases (and orderlinessincreases) from gaseous state to liquidstate and to solid state and vice versa.

(2) Illustrations of changes of state using thedifferent forms of water, iodine, sulphur,naphthalene etc.

(3) Brownian motion to be illustrated usingany of the following experiments:

(a) pollen grains/powdered sulphur inwater (viewed under a microscope);

(b) smoke in a glass containerilluminated by a strong light from theside;

(c) a dusty room being swept andviewed from outside under sunlight.
(iii) Diffusion(1) Experimental demonstration ofdiffusion of two gases.

(2) Relationship between speed at whichdifferent gas particles move and themasses of particles.

(3) Experimental demonstration ofdiffusion of solute particles inliquids.
(b) Gases:(i) Characteristics and nature of gases;Arrangement of particles, density, shapeand compressibility.
(ii) The gas laws;The Gas laws: Charles’; Boyle’s;Dalton’s law of partial pressure;

Graham’s law of diffusion, Avogadro’slaw. The ideal gas equation of state.

Qualitative explanation of each of thegas laws using the kinetic model.

The use of Kinetic molecular theory toexplain changes in gas volumes,pressure, temperature.

Mathematical relations of the gas lawPV= nRT

Ideal and Real gasesFactors responsible for the deviation ofreal gases from ideal situation.
(iii) Laboratory preparation and properties of some gases.(1) Preparation of the following gases:H2, NH3 and CO2. Principles ofpurification and collection of gases.

(2) Physical and chemical properties ofthe gases.

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(c) (i) LiquidsCharacteristics and nature of liquidsbased on the arrangement of particles,shape, volume, compressibility, densityand viscosity.
(ii) Vapour and gases.(1) Concept of vapour, vapour pressure,saturated vapour pressure, boilingand evaporation.

(2) Distinction between vapour and gas.

(3) Effect of vapour pressure on boilingpoints of liquids.

(4) Boiling at reduced pressure.
(d) Solids:
(i) Characteristics and nature;
(1) Ionic, metallic, covalent network andmolecular solids. Examples in eachcase.

(2) Arrangements of particles ions,molecules and atoms in the solidstate.
(ii) Types and structures;

(iii) Properties of solids.
Relate the properties of solids to the typeof interatomic and intermolecularbonding in the solids.

Identification ofthe types of chemical bonds in graphiteand differences in the physical properties.
(e) Structures, properties and uses ofdiamond and graphite.The uses of diamond and graphite relatedto the structure. The use of iodine in everyday life.
(f) Determination of melting points ofcovalent solids.Melting points as indicator of purity ofsolids e.g. Phenyl methanedioic acid(benzoic acid), ethanedioic acid (oxalic)and ethanamide.

8.0 ENERGY AND ENERGY CHANGES

(a) Energy and enthalpyExplanation of the terms energy andenthalpy.

Energy changes associated withchemical processes.
(b) Description, definition and illustrations of energy changes and their effects.(1) Exothermic and endothermicprocesses.

(2) Total energy of a system as the sumof various forms of energy e.g.kinetic, potential, electrical, heat,sound etc.

(3) Enthalpy changes involved in thefollowing processes: combustion,dissolution and neutralization.

9.0 ACIDS, BASES AND SALTS

(a) Definitions of acids and bases.(1) Arrhenius concepts of acids andbases in terms of H3O+ and OH- ionsin water.

(2) Effects of acids and bases onindicators, metal Zn, Fe andtrioxocarbonate (IV) salts andhydrogentrioxocarbonate (IV) salts.
(b) Physical and chemical properties of acids and bases.Characteristic properties of acids andbases in aqueous solution to include:
(a) conductivities, taste,

litmus/indicators, feel etc.;

(b) balanced chemical equations of allreactions.
(c) Acids, bases and salts as electrolytes.Electrolytes and non-electrolytes; strongand weak electrolytes.

Evidence fromconductivity and enthalpy ofneutralization.
(d) Classification of acids and bases.(1) Strength of acids and bases.(2) Classify acids and bases into strong

and weak.

(3) Extent of dissociation reaction withwater and conductivity.

(4) Behaviour of weak acids and weakbases in water as example ofequilibrium systems.
(e) Concept of pH(1) Definition of pH and knowledge ofpH scale.

(2) Measurement of pH of solutionsusing pH meter, calometric methodsor universal indicator.

(3) Significance of pH values ineveryday life e.g. acid rain, pH ofsoil, blood, urine.
(f) Salts:Meaning of salts.

Types of salts: normal, acidic, basic,double and complex salts.
(i) Laboratory and industrial preparationof salts;

(ii) Uses;
(1) Description of laboratory andindustrial production of salts.

(2) Mining of impure sodium chlorideand conversion into granulated salt.

(3) Preparation of NaOH, Cl2 and H2.
(iii) Hydrolysis of salt.(1) Explanation of how salts formsacidic, alkaline and neutral aqueoussolutions.

(2) Behaviour of some salts (e.g NH4Cl,AlCl3sub>, Na2CO3, CH3COONa) inwater as examples of equilibriumsystems.

(3) Effects of charge density of somecations and anions on the hydrolysisof their aqueous solution. Examplesto be taken from group 1, group 2,group 3 and the d-block element.
(g) Deliquescent, efflorescent andhygroscopic compound.Use of hygroscopic compounds asdrying agent should be emphasized.
(h) Acid-Base indicators(1) Qualitative description of how acidbaseindicator works.

(2) Indicators as weak organic acids orbases (organic dyes).

(3) Colour of indicator at any pHdependent on relative amounts ofacid and forms.

(4) Working pH ranges of methyl orangeand phenolphthalein.
(i) Acid-Base titration(1) Knowledge and correct use ofrelevant apparatus.

(2) Knowledge of how acid-basesindicators work in titrations.

(3) Acid-base titration experimentsinvolving HCl, HNO3, H2SO4 andNaOH, KOH, Ca(OH)2, CO32-,HCO3-.

(4) Titration involving weak acidsversus strong bases, strong acidsversus weak bases and strong acidsversus strong bases using theappropriate indicators and theirapplications in quantitativedetermination; e.g. concentrations,mole ratio, purity, water ofcrystallization and composition.

10.0 SOLUBILITY OF SUBTANCES

(a) General principles(1) Meaning of Solubility.

(2) Saturated and unsaturated solutions.

(3) Saturated solution as an equilibriumsystem.

(4) Solubility expressed in terms of: moldm-3 and g dm-3 of solution/solvent.

(5) Solubility curves and their uses.

(6) Effect of temperature on solubility ofa substance.

(7) Relationship between solubility andcrystallization.

(8) Crystallization/recrystallization as amethod of purification.

(9) Knowledge of soluble and insolublesalts of stated cations and anions.

(10) Calculations on solubility.
(b) Practical application of solubility.Generalization about solubility of saltsand their applications to qualitativeanalysis. e.g. Pb2+, Ca2+, Al3+, Cu2+,Fe2+, Fe3+, Cl-, Br-, I-, SO42-, S2-, andCO32-, Zn2+, NH4+, SO32-

Explanation of solubility rules.

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11.0 CHEMICAL KINETICS AND EQUILIBRIUM SYSTEM

(a) Rate of reactions: (1) Definition of reaction rate.

(2) Observable physical and changes:
colour, mass, temperature, pH,formation of precipitate etc.
(i) Factors affecting rates;(1) Physical states, concentration/pressure of reactants, temperature,catalysts, light, particle size andnature of reactants.

(2) Appropriate experimentaldemonstration for each factor isrequired.
(ii) Theories of reaction rates;(1) Collision and transition statetheories to be treated qualitativelyonly.

(2) Factors influencing collisions:temperature and concentration.

(3) Effective collision.

(4) Activation energy.

(5) Energy profile showing activationenergy and enthalpy change.
(iii) Analysis and interpretation of graphs.Drawing of graphs and charts.
(b) Equilibrium:

(i) General Principle;
Explanation of reversible andirreversible reactions.

Reversiblereaction i.e. dynamic equilibrium.

Equilibrium constant K must be treatedqualitatively.

It must be stressed that Kfor a system is constant at constanttemperature.

Simple experiment to demonstratereversible reactions.
(ii) Le Chatelier’s principle.Prediction of the effects of externalinfluence of concentration, temperaturepressure and volume changes onequilibrium systems.

12.0 REDOX REACTIONS

(a) Oxidation and reduction process.(1) Oxidation and reduction in terms of:

(a) addition and removal of oxygenand hydrogen;

(b) loss and gain of electrons;

(c) change in oxidationnumbers/states.

(2) Determination of oxidationnumbers/states.
(b) Oxidizing and reducing agents.(1) Description of oxidizing and reducingagents in terms of:

(a) addition and removal of oxygenand hydrogen;

(b) loss and gain of electrons;

(c) change in oxidation numbers/state.
(c) Redox equationsBalancing redox equations by:
(a) ion, electron or change in oxidationnumber/states;

(b) half reactions and overall reaction.
(d) Electrochemical cells:Definition/Explanation
(i) Standard electrode potential;

(ii) Drawing of cell diagram and writingcell notation.
(1) Standard hydrogen electrode:meaning of standard electrodepotential (Eo) and its measurement.

(2) Only metal/metal ion systems shouldbe used.
(iii) e.m.f of cells;(1) Electrochemical cells as acombination of two half-cells.

(2) The meaning of magnitude and signof the e.m.f.
(iv) Application of Electrochemical cells.(1) Distinction between primary andsecondary cells

(2) Daniell cell, lead acid battery cell, drycells, fuel cells and their use asgenerators of electrical energy fromchemical reactions.
(e) Electrolysis:Definition.
(i) Electrolytic cells;Comparison of electrolytic andelectrochemical cells; weak and strongelectrolyte.
(ii) Principles of electrolysis;Mechanism of electrolysis.
(iii) Factors influencing discharge ofspecies;Limit electrolytes to molten PbBr2and NaCl, dilute NaCl solution,concentrated NaCl solution, CuSO4(aq),dilute H2SO4, NaOH(aq) and CaCl2(aq)(using platinum or graphite and copperelectrodes).
(iv) Faraday’s laws;Simple calculations based on the relation1F= 96,500 C and mole ratios todetermine mass, volume of gases,number of entities, charges etc. usinghalf and overall reactions.
(v) Practical application;Electroplating, extraction and purificationof metals.
(vi) Corrosion of metals.(1) Corrosion treated as a redox process.(2) Rusting of iron and its economiccosts.

(3) Prevention based on relativemagnitude of electrode potentialsand preventive methods likegalvanizing, sacrificial/cathodicprotection and non-redox methods(painting, greasing/oiling etc.).

13.0 CHEMISTRY OF CARBON COMPOUNDS

(a) ClassificationBroad classification into straight chain,branched chain, aromatic and alicycliccompounds.
(b) Functional groupSystematic nomenclature of compoundswith the following functional groups:alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, hydroxylcompounds (aliphatic and aromatic),alkanoic acids, alkyl alkanoates (estersand salts) and amines.
(b) Separation and purification of organiccompounds.Methods to be discussed should include:distillation; crystallization; drying andchromatography.
(c) Petroleum/crude oil(1) Composition and classification.

(2) Fractional distillation and majorproducts.

(3) Cracking and reforming.

(4) Petro-chemicals: sources;
uses e.g.as starting materials of organicsynthesis.

(5) Quality of petrol, meaning of octanenumber and its importance to thepetroleum industry.
(d) Determination of empirical andmolecular formulae and molecularstructures of organic compounds.
(e) General properties of organiccompounds:

(i) Homologous series;
(1) Gradation in physical properties.(2) Effects on the physical properties byintroduction of active groups into theinert alkane.
(ii) Isomerism.(1) Examples should be limited tocompounds having maximum of fivecarbon atoms.

(2) Differences between structural andgeometric/stereo isomerism.
(f) Alkanes:

(i) Sources, properties;
(1) Laboratory and industrialpreparations and other sources.

(2) Nomenclature and structure.

(3) Reactivity:

(a) combustion;

(b) substitution reactions;

(c) cracking of large alkanemolecules.
(ii) Uses.As fuels, as starting materials forsynthesis.

Uses of haloakanes andpollution effects.
(g) Alkenes:

(i) Sources and properties;
(1) Laboratory preparation.

(2) Nomenclature and structure.

(3) Addition reactions with halogenshydrogen, bromine water, hydrogenhalides and acidified water.

(4) Oxidation: hydroxylation withaqueous KMnO4.

(5) Polymerization.
(ii) Uses;

(iii) Laboratory detection.
Use of reaction with Br2/water, Br2/CCl4and KMnO4(aq) as means ofcharacterizing alkenes.

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(h) Alkynes:

(i) Sources, characteristic properties anduses;
(1) Nomenclature and structure.

(2) Industrial production of ethyne.

(3) Uses of ethyne.

(4) Distinguishing test between terminaland non-terminal alkynes.

(5) Test to distinguish between alkane,alkene and alkyne.
(ii) Chemical reactions.Chemical reactions: halogenation,combustion, hydration andhydrogenation.
(i) Benzene:

(i) Structure and physical properties;
Resonance in benzene. Stability leadingto substitution reactions.
(ii) Chemical properties.(1) Addition reactions: hydrogenationand halogenation (mechanism notrequired).

(2) Compare reactions with those ofalkenes.
(J) Alkanols:

(i) Sources, nomenclature and structure;
(1) Laboratory preparation includinghydration of alkenes.

(2) Industrial and local production ofethanol including alcoholicbeverages.

(3) Harmful impurities and methods ofpurification should be mentioned.

(4) Recognition of the structure of mono-, di- and triols.
(ii) Classification;Primary, secondary and tertiary alkanols.
(iii) Physical properties;Boiling point, solubility in water.

Including hydrogen bonding effect.
(iv) Chemical properties;(1) Reaction with:
(a) Na;

(b) alkanoic acids (esterification);

(c) conc. H2SO4.

(2) Oxidation by:
(a) KMnO4(aq);

(b) K2Cr2O7(aq);

(c) I2 in NaOH(aq).
(v) Laboratory test;

(vi) Uses.
Laboratory test for ethanol.
(k) Alkanoic acids:Methanoic acid –insect bite.

Ethanoic acid – vinegar.
(i) Sources, nomenclature and structure;Recognition of mono and dioic acid.
(ii) Physical properties;Boiling point, solubility in water.Including hydrogen bonding effect.
(iii) Chemical properties;Acid properties only i.e. reactions withH2O, NaOH, NH3, NaHCO3<, Zn and Mg.
(iv) Laboratory test;Reaction with NaHCO3, Na2CO3.
(iv) Uses.Uses of ethanoic and phenyl methanoic(benzoic) acids as examples of aliphaticand aromatic acids respectively.
(l) Alkanoates as drivatives of alkanoic acids:

(i) Sources, nomenclature, preparationand structure;
Preparation of alkyl alkanoates (esters)from alkanoic acids.
(ii) Physical properties;Solubility, boiling and melting point.
(iii) Chemical properties;Hydrolysis of alkyl alkanoates(mechanism not required).
(iv) Uses.Uses of alkanoates to includeproduction of soap, flavouring agent,plasticizers, as solvents and inperfumes.

14.0 CHEMISTRY, INDUSTRY AND THE ENVIRONMENT

(a) Chemical industry(1) Natural resources in candidate’s woncountry.

(2) Chemical industries in candidates owncountry and their corresponding rawmaterials.

(3) Distinction between fine and heavychemicals.

(4) Factors that determine location ofchemical industries.

(5) Effect of industries on thecommunity.
(b) Pollution: air, water and soilpollution;(1) Sources, effects and control.

(2) Greenhouse effect and depletion ofthe ozone layer.

(3) Biodegradable and non-biodegradablepollutants.
(c) Biotechnology.Food processing, fermentation includingproduction of gari, bread and alcoholicbeverages e.g. Local gin.

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15.0 BASIC BIOCHEMISTRY AND SYNTHETIC POLYMERS

(a) Proteins:Proteins as polymers of amino acidsmolecules linked by peptide or amidelinkage.
(i) Sources and properties;

(ii) Uses of protein.
Physical properties e.g. solubilityChemical properties to include:

(a) hydrolysis of proteins;

(b) laboratory test usingNinhydrin/Biuret reagent/Millonsreagent.
(b) Amino acids(1) Nomenclature and general structureof amino acids.

(2) Difunctional nature of amino acids.
(c) Fats/oils:As alkyl alkanoates (esters).
(i) Sources and properties;From animals and plants.Physical properties such as solubility.Chemical properties:

(a) acidic and alkaline hydrolysis;

(b) hydrogenation;

(c) test for fats and oil.
(ii) General structure of fats/oils;As mono-, di-, and tri- esters of propane-1,2,3-triol (glycerol).
(iii) Preparation of soap;

(iv) Uses of fats/oils.
(1) Preparation of soap (saponification)from fats and oils.

(2) Comparison of soap less detergentsand their action on soft and hardwater.
(d) Carbohydrates:,br
(i) Sources and nomenclature;
(1) Classes of carbohydrates as:
(a) monosaccharides;

(b) disaccharides;

(c) polysaccharides.

(2) Name and components of variousclasses of carbohydrates.
(ii) Properties;(1) Physical properties such as solubilityof sugars.

(2) Chemical properties- Hydrolysis ofdisaccharides into monosaccharides.

(3) Test for reducing sugars using sugarstrips, Fehling’s or Benedicts solutionor Tollen’s reagent.
(iii) Carbohydrate as examples ofpolymer;

(iv) Uses.
(1) Starch as a polymer made up ofglucose units.

(2) Condensation of monosaccharides toform disaccharides andpolysaccharides.
(e) Synthetic polymers:(1) Definition of terms: monomers,polymers and polymerization.(2) Addition and condensationpolymerization.

(3) Classification and preparation basedon the monomers and comonomers.
(i) Properties;

(ii) Uses of polymers.
(1) Thermoplastics and thermosets.(2) Modification of properties ofpolymers.

(3) Plastics and resins.

(4) Chemical test on plastics using:

(a) heat;

(b) acids;

(c) alkalis.

SECTION B

(For candidates in Ghana only)


TOPICCONTENTSNOTES

1.0 STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM

(a) Elementary treatment of mass spectrometer.(1) Qualitative knowledge of the massspectrometer: principles and operations of themass spectrometer; and its use to detectisotopes, determination of Relative atomic andmolecular masses only.

(2) Wave nature of electrons.

(3) Quantum numbers and their importance.
(b) (i) Nuclear chemistryMeaning of terms: Nucleons, nuclide.
(ii) Types and nature of radiations:alpha, beta particles and gammaradiation.Charges, relative mass and penetrating power ofradiations.

Meaning of radioactivity.

Differencebetween spontaneous nuclear reactions(radioactivity) and induced nuclear reactions.
(iii) Radioactivity:induced/stimulated.Natural and artificial radioactivity.

Detection of radiation by Geiger-Muller counter.
(iv) Nuclear reactions: fission andfusion in nuclear reactions.Distinction between ordinary chemical reactionsand nuclear reactions.

Generations of electricity;

atomic bombs.

Balanced equations of nuclearreactions
(v) Effects and application ofradioactivity(1) Carbon dating (qualitative treatment only).

(2) Use of radioactivity in agriculture, medicineand industries.

(3) Hazards associated with nuclear radiations.Factors affecting stability of nuclides:

Binding energy, neutron-proton ratio, and half life.Calculations involving half-life

2.0 PERIODIC CHEMISTRY

(a) Reactions between acidsand metals their oxides andtrioxocarbonates (IV).(1) Period three metals (Na, Mg, Al)

(2) Period four metals (K, Ca)

(3) Chemical equations

(4) pH of solutions of the metallic oxides andtrioxocarbonates.
(b) Acidic properties of oxides of nonmetals.(1) Oxides of carbon, nitrogen, sulphur,phosphorus and chlorine.

(2) pH of aqueous solutions of the oxides.

(3) Chemical equations.
(c) Physical and chemical properties ofperiod 3 elements and theircompounds.(1) Comparison of the physical and chemicalproperties of period three elements.

(2) Comparison of the physical and chemicalproperties of (hydrides, oxides, hydroxidesand chlorides) compounds.

(3) Thermal stability of CO32- and NO3- of Li,Na, K, Mg and Ca.

(4) Experiment to compare thermal stability ofNa2CO3/LiCO3/CuSO4.
(d) Silicon(1) Structures for SiO2 and CO2 account for thedifferences between physical and chemicalproperties of the two oxides.

(2) Uses of silicon and its compounds e.g.ceramics, glass, silica gel and microchips.
(e) Periodic gradation of elements ingroup seven i.e. the halogens.(1) Inter- atomic bond energies.

(2) Hydrides and their acid strength comparisonof the Ka values of the hydrogen halides.

(3) Variable oxidation states of the halogens.
(f) Bonding in complex compounds.Definition of ligands and central ionsExamples of ligands

(1) Formation of coordination compounds.

(2) Nomenclature of complex ions andcompounds (Cl-, F-, I-, NO3-, NH3, H2O,SO42-).
(g) Shapes of complex compounds.Tetrahedral, square planar, octahedral e.g.(Fe(CN)6]3-, [Cu(NH3)4]2+, [Ag)NH3)2]+ [Cu)CN)4]2
(h) Elements of the first transitionseries.Reactivity of the metals with air, water, acids and comparison with s-block elements (Li, Na, Be,Mg).

3.0. CHEMICAL BONDS

(a) Formation of Ionic bonds:
(i) Factors that influence ionic bondformation;

(ii) Covalent character in ionic bond;

(iii) Polar covalent bonds.
Factors should include lattice energy.
(1) Ionic character (polarity) in covalent bondsbased on electronegativity differencebetween the species involved.

(2) Effects of covalent and ionic character inionic and covalent bonds on the solubility,thermal stability and boiling points of ionicand covalent compounds.
(b)(i) Hybridization of atomic orbitals.Definition of Hybridization.
(ii) Formation of hybrid orbitals.(1) Description of sp, sp2, sp3 hybrid orbitals.(2) Shapes of sp, sp2, sp3 and sp3d2 hybridorbitals. Treatment should be limited to thefollowing molecules only. CH4, H2O, NH3,BCl3, C2H2, BeCl2, C2H4 and SF6.
(iii) Formation of sigma (σ) and pi (π)bonds.Description of sigma and pi bonds. Using C2H2 andC6H6.

4.0 SOLUTIONS

(a) Preparation of solutions from liquidsolutes by the method of dilution.(1) Outline of steps involved in the preparationof solutions from liquid solutes.

(2) Determination of concentration of liquidsolutes (stock solution) given the density,w/v, w/w), specific gravity, relativemolecular mass, molar mass, and % purity.

(3) Primary standard, secondary standard andstandardized solution.

5.0 ENERGY AND ENERGY CHANGES

(a) Energy changes in physical andisolated systems.(1) Definition and understanding of themeaning of the energy terms: systems,surroundings, open and closed.

(2) Enthalpy change involved in the followingprocesses: combustion, atomization,sublimation, hydration/salvation anddissolution.
(b) Hess’s Law of heat summation andBorn-Haber cycle.Explanation of Hess’s law and its application inthe development of the Born-Haber cycle.

(1) Use of difference cycles to illustrate Hess’slaw.

(2) Simple calculations using chemicalequations, energy cycles or diagrams withgiven energy changes.
(c) Bond EnergyExplanation of bond energy and bonddissociation energy.

(1) Bond energy as an average value.Differences in bond energy and bonddissociation energy.

(2) Bond energy in molecules and its use inassessment of bond strength, energy contentand enthalpy of reaction.

(3) Calculations using summation of bondenergies in reactants and products as ameasure of enthalpy of reaction.

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6.0 ACIDS, BASES AND SALTS

(a) Definitions of acids and bases.(1) Bronsted – Lowry and Lewis concept ofacids and bases.

(2) Conjugate acid-base pair concept in termsof equilibrium.
(b) pH, pOH and pKw(1) Ionic product constant of water Kw =[H+(aq)][OH(aq)] = 1.0 x 10-14 mol2dm-6.(2) pH and pOH as a measure of acidity andalkalinity respectively pH = -log[H3O+].(3) Knowledge of pH scale.(4) Calculation of [H+], [OH-] and thecorresponding pH and pOH of givensolutions.
(c) Partial ionization of weak acids andweak bases.Explanation of pKa and pKb of weak acids andbases.

(1) Behaviour of weak acids and weak bases inwater as example of equilibrium systems.

(2) Calculations involving Ka, pKa and Kb,pKb.

(3) Ka, pKa and Kb, pKb as measurements ofacid and basic strengths respectively.
(d) Buffer Solutions(1) Qualitative definition of buffers.

(2) Examples of buffers from the laboratory.

(3) Preparation of buffer solutions.
(e) Acid base titrationsDouble indicator titrations (continuous andDiscontinuous) and back titration.

Calculations involving concentration, compositionand % purity.

Graphs for acid-based titrations.

Nature of graphsof strong acid and strong base, strong acid andweak base and strong base and weak acid.

7.0 SOLUBILITY OF SUBSTANCES

(a) Solubility and solubility product.(1) Explanation of solubility products (Ksp) of sparingly soluble ionic compounds.

(2) Calculations involving solubility andsolubility products.

(3) Factors affecting solubility.
(c) Crystallization and recrystallization.Explanation of the effect of lattice energy and hydration energy on crystallization andrecrystallization.

8.0 CHEMICAL KINETICS AND EQUILIBRIUM SYSTEMS

(a) Rate law and Order of reaction

(b) Rate determining step of a multi-stepreaction.

(c) Equilibrium
(1) Deduction of order and rate law fromexperimental data.

(2) Simple relationship between rates andconcentration of zero, first and second orderreactions. Graphical representation of zero,first and second order reactions.

(3) Half-life for first order reactions and itssignificance.

(4) General rate law equation.

(5) Derivation of the rate expression fromexperimentally determined rate data:
R = k[A]x [B]y where k = rate constant.
(d) Equilibrium Law of Mass Action.(1) Mathematical expression for thedetermination of equilibrium constant K

(2) K is constant for a system at constanttemperature.

(3) Relationship between Kp and Kc.

(4) Calculation of Kp and Kc from given setof data.

(5) Difference between homogeneous andheterogeneous equilibrium systems.

9.0 CHEMISTRY OF CARBON COMPOUNDS

(a) Separation and Purification.Other methods should include solvent extraction and melting point determinations.
(b) Determination of empirical andmolecular formulae.Outline of steps in:
(a) Detection of N, S and the halogens.

(b) Estimation of C, H and O.
(c) Reactivity of Organic Compounds.(1) Inductive effect and Mesomeric effect.

(2) Resonance illustrated with benzenemolecule.

(3) Explanation of the terms:
nucleophiles, electrophiles, free radicals andions. homolytic fission, heterolytic fission.
(d) AlkanesHalogenation – free radical mechanism.
(e) (i) Reactions of benzene.Mono substituted reactions of benzene:
toluene, phenol, aniline, benzoic acid and nitrobenzene.
(IUPAC and trivial names)
(ii) Comparison or reactions ofbenzene and alkenes.Differences between the reactivity of benzene and alkenes towards certain reagents.

Uses of hexachlorocyclobezane and benzenehexachloride (BHC).

10.0 CHEMICAL INDUSTRY AND ENVIRONMENT

(a) (i) Sources of raw materials

(ii) Mining of mineral as ore.
Location of mineral deposits and their nature.
(iii) Extraction of metals Mineraldeposits in Ghana.(1) Metals – gold, bauxite, manganese and iron.

(2) Precious stone – diamond.

(3) Industrial mining of limestone CaCO3, clay Kaolin, solar salt

(4) Processing of Au, Al, Fe as main products

(5) Uses of the metals
(b) Cement and its uses(1) Sources of raw materials for cementsproduction.

(2) Processes involved in the production ofcement.

(3) Uses of cement.

(4) Environmental impact.

SECTION C

(For candidates in Nigeria, Sierra-Leone, Liberia and The Gambia)


TOPICCONTENTSNOTES

1.0 NON METALS AND THEIR COMPOUNDS

(a) Carbon:

(i) Allotropes of carbon;
(1) Graphite, diamond and amorphousCarbon;

(2) Structures, properties and uses.

(3) The uses of the allotropes should becorrelated with their properties andstructures.

(4) Combustion of allotropes.
(ii) Coal:
I. Types;

II. Destructive distillationof coal and uses of theproducts.
Different types should include anthracite,peat and lignite.
(iii) Coke:
I. Classification and uses;

II. Manufacture of syntheticgas and uses.
Water gas and producer gas.
(iv) Oxides of carbon
I. Carbon (IV) oxides;
(1) Laboratory preparation.

(2) Properties and uses.

(3) Test for carbon (IV) oxides.

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II. Carbon (II) oxides;Properties and uses only.
III. Trioxocarbonate (IV) salt.(1) Properties: solubility, action of heat,reaction with dilute acid.

(2) Uses.
(b) Oxygen:
(i) Laboratory and industrialpreparation;

(ii) Properties and uses;

(iii) Binary compounds of oxygen:
acidic, basic, amphoteric andneutral oxides.
Test for oxygen will be required.
(c) Hydrogen:
(i) Laboratory preparations;

(ii) Properties and uses.
Test for hydrogen will be required.
(d) Water and solution:
(i) Composition of water;
Test for water will be required.

Reference should be made to theelectrolysis of acidified water.
(ii) Water as a solvent;

(iii)Hardness of water, causes andmethods of removing it;

(iv) Treatment of water for townsupply.
(1) Advantages and disadvantages of hardwater and soft water.

(2) Experiments to compare the degrees ofhardness in different samples of water.
(e) Halogens:Redox properties of the elements;

displacement reaction of one halogen byanother.
(i) Chlorine:
I. Laboratory preparation;

II. Properties and reactions.
Properties should include:
(a) variable oxidation states;

(b) reaction with water and alkali(balanced equation required).
(f) Hydrogen chloride gas:
(i) Laboratory preparation;

(ii) Properties and uses;

(iii) Uses of halogen compounds.
(1) Test for HCl gas.
(2) Fountain experiment.

Uses should include silver halide inphotography and sodium oxochlorate (I) asa bleaching agent.
(g) Nitrogen:
(i) Preparation and properties;

(ii) Uses of nitrogen;

(iii) Compounds of nitrogen:
Both laboratory and industrial preparationsfrom liquefied air are required.
I. Ammonia;(1) Laboratory and industrial preparations.

(2) Properties and uses.

(3) Test for ammonia.

(4) Fountain experiment.
II. Trioxonitrate (V) acid;(1) Laboratory preparation.

(2) Properties and uses.
III. Trioxonitrate (V) salts.(1) Action of heat will be required.

(2) Test for trioxonitrate (V) ions.
(h) Sulphur:
(i) Allotropes and uses;

(ii) Compound of sulphur;

(iii) Trioxosulphate (IV) acids andits salts;

(iv) Tetraoxosulphate (VI) acid:
industrial preparation, reactionsand uses.

(i) The noble gases: properties and uses.
Contact process should be discussed.

2.0 METALS AND THEIR COMPOUNDS

(a) Extraction of metals:
(i) Aluminium;

(ii) Iron;

(iii) Tin.
(1) Raw materials, processing, mainproducts and by-products.

(2) Uses of metals.
(b) Alloys.Common alloys of Cu, Al, Pb, Fe, Snand their uses.
(c) Properties and uses of sodium and itscompounds.Compounds must be limited to NaCl,NaOH, Na2CO3, NaNO3, Na2SO4 andNaClO.
(d) Properties and uses of calcium and itscompounds.The compounds must be limited toCaCO3, CaO, CaSO4, CaCl2, andCa(OH)2
(e) Reactivity of iron and aluminium withair, water and acids.

(f) Properties and uses of copper and itscompounds.
The compounds must be limited toCuSO4, CuO and CuCl2.

16.0 PRACTICALS

(a) GENERAL SKILLS AND PRINCIPLES

Candidates will be expected to be familiar with the following skills and principles:
(i) Measurement of mass and volume;
(ii) Preparation and dilution of standard solutions;
(iii) Filtration, recrystallisation and melting point determination;
(iv) Measurement of heats of neutralization and solutions;
(v) Determination of pH value of various solutions by colorimetry;
(vi) Determination of rates of reaction from concentration versus time curves;
(vii) Determination of equilibrium constants for simple system.


(b) QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS

Acid-base titrations
The use of standard solutions of acids and alkalis and the indicators; methyl orange, methyl red and phenolphthalein to determine the following:
(i) The concentrations of acid and alkaline solutions;
(ii) The molar masses of acids and bases and water of crystallization.
(iii) The solubility of acids and bases;
(iv) The percentage purity of acids and bases;
(v) Analysis of Na2CO3/NaHCO3 mixture by doubleindicator methods (Ghanaians only).
(vi) Stoichiometry of reactions.

Redox titrations
Titrations of the following systems to solve analytical problems:
(i) Acidic MnO4- with Fe2+;
(ii) Acidic MnO4- with C2O42-;
(iii) I2 in KI versus S2O32-.


(c) QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS

No formal scheme of analysis is required.
(i) Characteristic tests of the following cations with dilute NaOH(aq) and NH3(aq);
NH4; Ca2+; Pb2+; Cu2+; Fe2+; Fe3+; Al3+; and Zn2+.
(ii) Confirmatory tests for the above cations.
(iii) Characteristic reaction of dilute HCl on solids or aqueous solutions and conc.
H2SO4 on solid samples of the following:
Cl-; SO32-; CO32-; NO3- and SO42-.

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(iv) Confirmatory tests for the above anions
(v) Comparative study of the halogens; displacement reactions.
(vi) Characteristic tests for the following gases: H2; NH3; CO2; HCl and SO2.
(vii) Characteristic test tube reactions of the functional groups in the following simpleorganic compounds:
Alkenes; alkanols; alkanoic acids, sugars (using Fehiling’sand Benedict’s solutions only);
starch (iodine test only) and proteins (using theNinhydrin test, Xanthoporteic test, Biuret test and Millon’s test only).

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ADDRESS: 1. M. Aruna Close, Ughelli, Delta State, Nigeria

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We provide educational resources/materials, curriculum guide, syllabus, scheme of work, lesson note & plan, waec, jamb, O-level & advance level GCE lessons/tutorial classes, on various topics, subjects, career, disciplines & department etc. for all the Class of Learners