Lesson Plan On Basic Technology

Woodwork Hand Tools

Subject: Basic Technology

Theme: Woodwork Hand Tools

Topic: Tools and Objects Production.

Sub Topic: Carpentry tools.

Date: dd/mm/yyyy

Class: JSS 1

Duration: 35 Minutes

No of Learners: 30

Learning Objectives:

By the end of the lesson learners should be able to:
  1. Say what carpentry means.

    Carpentry is the art of making wooden products.
  2. Say what carpentry tools are.

    A tool is a handheld device used to carry out a particular function. Carpenters use carpentry tools to make wooden products.
  3. List usage and maintenance of some carpentry tools


    1. Workbench: It is a surface on which a carpenter does her or his work. Work that can be done on it includes smoothing wood, cutting, measuring and making joints on wood.
      Such as:
      • Placing a piece of wood on the workbench and cut it into two using a saw.
      • Smoothen one part of the wood on the workbench.
        Maintenance of a Workbench:
      • Remove all the tools that are not in use from the workbench. Wipe the bench and check if that is firm and stable.
    2. Saw: There are various types of saws. Examples are: Table saw, bow saw and wood saw.
      • Bow saw: This is also known as a frame saw or bucksaw. It is used to make straight and curved cuts on wood.
      • Table saw: It is made up of a circular blade that is moved by an electric motor. The blade is held in place by a table or bend. It is used to cut a block of wood into small pieces.
      • Wood saw: It is commonly called the handsaw. It is used to cut pieces of wood into different shapes and sizes.
        Maintenance of a Saw:
      • Check if the hand saw blade is sharp, if it does not sharpen it using a file. Check if the handle is in good condition.
      • After using the saws remove pieces of wood shaving stuck on the blade using a stick.
    3. T-square: It is used for drawing and measuring right-angled objects.
      Maintenance of a T-square:
      • Clean the parts to remove dust and sawdust. Store the T-square safely after use.
      • Apply oil on the metallic parts of the T-square to prevent rusting.
    4. Claw hammer: It is used for driving nails in wood and also for pulling it out.
      Maintenance of a Claw hammer:
      • Store the hammer in a dry and safe place after use.
    5. Plane: It is used for smoothing wood to give smooth and shiny surfaces. Examples of planes are: Jointer plane, Smoothing plane and Jack plane.
      Maintenance of a Plane:
      • Adjust the blade to the desired angle. Oil the plane.
      • Store the plane in a dry and safe place after use.
    6. Axe: An axe is used for splitting and cutting wood. It is also used for cutting down trees and uprooting stumps.
      Maintenance of an Axe:
      • Look at the blade of the axe. Is it sharp?
        • Sharpen blunt cutting edges of the axe.
        • Replace the worn-out blades with new ones.
        • Ensure the axe is firmly fixed to the handle.
      • Clean the blade and store the axe in a clean dry place.
    7. Screwdriver: It is used to drive screws in wood. It is also used to remove screws out of wood.
      Maintenance of a Screwdriver:
      • Ensure the tip of the screwdriver is not damaged. Replace broken or worn-out handles.
      • Clean the screwdriver and store the axe in a clean dry place.
    8. Brace: The brace is used for boring holes in wood. Force is applied on top and the handle rotated with one hand.
      Maintenance of a Brace:
      • Ensure that the handle and the head of the brace are well fixed.
      • Ensure that the cutting tip of the brace is sharp.
      • Clean and store the brace in a clean and dry place.
    9. Clamp/ Jointer: A clamp is used to hold together pieces of wood to be glued. It also holds together the glued parts until the glue is dry and the pieces of wood are firmly jointed.
      Maintenance of a Clamp/ Jointer:
      • Check and ensure the screw and other moving parts of the clamp are oiled and functioning well.
      • Blow out dirt from the joints of the clamp and wipe it with a moist piece of cloth.
      • Clean and store the Clamp/ Jointer in a clean and dry place.
    10. Spirit level: It is used to check if the wood surface is horizontal or vertical. The spirit level is placed on a wooden surface, then the position of the bubble in the viewing point is noted. Hold the spirit level firmly when using it. Do not let it drop on a hard surface because it can easily break.
      Maintenance of a Spirit level:
      • Wipe the surface of the spirit level to remove dust and dirt from it.

Rationale:

Carpentry tools are used by carpenters to make furniture. In our homes, we have different pieces of furniture. Carpentry tools need to be used and maintained the property as they are the source of livelihood to many. Carpentry is also a source of revenue for our country. This lesson will encourage learners to use and maintain common carpentry tools.

Prerequisite/ Previous or Assumed knowledge:

Learners know of wooden/ furniture products such as Chair, Table, Shelf, Bed, Desk etc

Learning Materials:

Carpentry tools, Charts, Pictures, Textbooks

Reference Materials:

Basic Technology Book 1 by R. Abu et al.
Online resouces.

Lesson Development:

STAGE
TEACHER'S ACTIVITY
LEARNER'S ACTIVITY
LEARNING POINTS
INTRODUCTION
full class session (5mins)
The teacher asks the learners to name some furniture objects at home, offices, school, etc. Learners expected to respond.
Chairs, Tables, Beds, and Cupboards, Desk, kitchen cabinets and bookcases etc.
Confirming the previous lesson.
DEVELOPMENT Step 1
full class session (5 mins)
The teacher asks the learners, who made these furniture tools listed in the learner's activities above and with what material were they made. Learners expected to respond.
The tools were made by the carpenters and are made of wood.
Developing the concept of carpentry.
DEVELOPMENT Step 2. Group Work (2 mins) The teacher guides the learners to form four groups and ask them to choose their leaders and secretaries. Learners choose their group leaders and secretaries. Inculcating leadership skills, competitive spirit, cooperation, teamwork and a sense of responsibility among learners.
Step 3 Full class session (7 mins) The teacher asks learners in a group, what profession of persons make use of the tools display at the board/ ground or screen as the case may be (if the school has live carpentry tools the teacher should bring them out from the store for the learners to examine and identify).

The teacher should also ask and guide the learners to names each of the tools.
Learners expected response;
The tools are used by the carpenters.

The tools are: Spirit level, Brace, Clamp, Claw hammer, screwdriver, T-square, Plane, Saw, Word bench, chisel, tap, etc.
Introducing the topic Carpentry tools.
The teacher writes the topic on the board and asks learners to define carpentry and what carpentry tools are in their own words Learners expected to respond;
Carpentry is the art of making wooden products.

Carpenters use carpentry tools to make wooden products.
Meaning of carpentry and carpentry tools.
Stage 4
Full class discussion (10 mins)
The teacher asks the learners in a group study the pictures on the board and explains how the tools in the pictures are used by the carpenters.

If the school has a carpentry workshop, the teacher should take the learners to the workshop and guide learners to perform the following activities with the use of the carpentry tools.

  1. Remove all the tools that are not in use from the workbench. Wipe the bench and check if that is firm and stable.
  2. Place a piece of wood on the workbench and cut it into two using a saw.
  3. Check if the hand saw blade is sharp, if it does not sharpen it using a file. Check if the handle is in good condition.
  4. Hold a piece of timber and cut it using a hand saw.
  5. Cut another piece of wood using a bow saw.
  6. Place a T-square on a block of wood.
  7. Draw a straight line on the wood along the length and width of the T-square.
  8. Measure the angle formed and write down your answer.
  9. Ensure that the claw hammer handle is firmly attached to the head of the hammer. Replace worn-out or broken parts.
  10. Hold a nail onto a piece of wood.
  11. Hold the hammer firmly and hit the nail several times until it enters.
  12. Slide the claw hammer under the nail head.
  13. Pull the handle towards you to remove the nail.
  14. Pick the screws to be fixed into the piece of wood.
  15. Select a screwdriver with a tip that matches the head of the screw.
  16. Ensure the tip of the screwdriver is not damaged. Replace broken or worn-out handles.
  17. Grasp the handle of the screwdriver and use it to drive the screw in the piece of wood.
  18. Ensure that the handle and the head of the brace are well fixed.
  19. Ensure that the cutting tip of the brace is sharp.
  20. Lay a piece of wood on the workbench and mark the hole to be drilled on the wood using a pencil.
  21. Place the brace on the piece of wood. Make a hole in the wood by rotating the handle.
  22. Ensure you have the glue and the pieces of wood to be attached ready.
  23. Check and ensure the screw and other moving parts of the clamp are oiled and functioning well.
  24. Apply glue on the pieces of wood and allow them to dry.
  25. Attach the glued parts of wood and fix them to the clamp.
  26. Tighten the screw of the clamp and leave it for a while till the parts are firmly joined.
  27. Hold the spirit level firmly and place it on the wooden surface that you want to check.
  28. View and note the position of the bubble in the spirit level.


Learners expected to respond.
  1. The word bench- It is a surface on which a carpenter does her or his work.
  2. Wood saw/ handsaw- It is used to cut pieces of wood into different shapes and sizes.
  3. Table saw- It is used to cut a block of wood into small pieces.
  4. Bow saw- It is used to make straight and curved cuts on wood.
  5. Claw hammer- It is used for driving nails in wood and also for pulling them out.
  6. Plane- It is used for smoothing wood to give smooth and shiny surfaces.
  7. Screwdriver- It is used to drive screws in wood. It is also used to remove screws out of wood.
  8. Brace- The brace is used for boring holes in wood.
  9. Clamp/ Jointer- A clamp is used to hold together pieces of wood to be glued.
  10. Spirit level- It is used to check if the wood surface is horizontal or vertical.
Use of carpentry tools.
The teacher asks learners to discuss in a group how these carpentry tools can be maintained in other to prolong its life span and to make it work effectively whenever it is used. learners expected to respond;
  • Clean the tools and store them in a clean dry place.
  • Remove all the tools that are not in use from the workbench. Wipe the bench and check if that is firm and stable.
  • After using the saws remove pieces of wood shaving stuck on the blade using a stick.
  • Apply oil on the metallic parts of the T-square to prevent rusting.
  • Store the T-square safely after use.
  • Store the hammer in a dry and safe place after use.
  • Blow out dirt from the joints of the clamp and wipe it with a moist piece of cloth.
  • Wipe the surface of the spirit level to remove dust and dirt from it.
Maintainance of carpentry tools.
Evaluation. Full class session (10 mins) Ask the following questions to evaluate the achievement of the set objectives.
  1. What is carpentry tools?
  2. What is the use of Carpentry tools?
  3. What are the maintenance of carpentry tools?
Learners expected to response:
  1. Carpenter tools are tools used to make wooden products.
  2. Carpentry tools are used for removing nails cutting wood, holding workpieces.
    1. Maintenance of carpentry tools include.
    2. Caring for and maintaining carpentry tools by oiling and sharpening metal parts.
    3. Cleaning properly after used
    4. Proper storage of carpentry tools in a cool dry place.
Confirming the achievement of the set objectives.
Conclusion, full class session (3 mins) Ask learners, what are general maintenance practices of carpentry tools. Learners expected to response.
  1. The tools need to be used for the right purpose. This is called proper use.
  2. Sharpening cutting tools. Tools with cutting edges such as chisel, saw, axe and plane need to be regularly sharpened when they become blunt.
  3. Cleaning tools after use.
  4. Repair all broken parts. Repairing broken parts makes the tools efficient and safe to work with. Broken handles and blades need to be replaced.
  5. Oiling metallic parts helps to prevent rusting. Oiling moving parts reduces friction.
  6. Proper storage. The tools need to be stored properly to avoid damage. They are also secured from thieves. Properly stored tools cannot cause injuries to people.
Acquiring/ improving understanding of carpentry tools.
ASSIGNMENT The teacher gives learners a take home.
Draw and name the following carpentry tools.
Learners answer other questions. Improving their level of understanding of carpentry tools.