ASEI Lesson Plan on Biology

Lesson Note on Types of circulation


Subject: Biology
Theme: Circulatory System
Topic: Types of circulation
Sub Topic: Types of circulation
Date: dd/mm/yyyy
Class: S.S.S 2
Duration: 35 Minutes
No of Learners: 30

Learning Objectives:

By the end of the lesson learners should be able to:
  1. Define the circulatory system.

  2. The circulatory system is a system of blood vessels with a pump and valves to ensure a one-way flow of blood.
  3. List and explain the types of circulation.

  4. There are two types of circulatory systems in animals:
    • closed circulatory system and
    • open circulatory system.
    1. Open circulatory system: This is a circulatory system in which blood is in contact with body cells. In the open circulatory system, blood does not stay inside the vessels all the time because they are open-ended. Instead, the blood is pumped out of the vessels by a heart or pumping organ into a space within the body known as the haemocoel. This means that blood is in direct contact with the cells. The cells exchange materials directly with the blood. This blood eventually flows back into the heart due to the movement of the body muscles of the organism.

      Insects’ circulatory systems consist of a long tubular heart along the backside (dorsal) of the organism. When the heart contracts, blood in it is forced out at its front end. The blood then flows into the haemocoel or body space where the exchange of materials with the tissues takes place. It then re-enters the heart through openings called Ostia. The open circulatory system works best in organisms with a small body cavity, for example, insects. It is not efficient for large organisms such as vertebrates.
    2. Closed circulatory system: This is a circulatory system in which blood remains enclosed in a system of vessels. It circulates within these vessels due to the pumping action of the heart which is part of the system. In this way, waste substances from the tissues enter the blood vessels, while food substances from the blood vessels enter the tissues. The closed circulatory system is found in annelids and vertebrates like mammals. It has an advantage over the open circulatory system because the pressure of blood in it is high. This means that blood circulates faster and hence transports substances to and from the tissues faster than in the open systems.

      A closed circulatory system is a characteristic of vertebrates. However, there are significant differences in the structure of the heart and the circulation of blood among the different vertebrate groups due to adaptation and internal body structure (anatomy). There are two types of closed circulatory systems: single and closed circulatory system.
  5. Describe the single circulation of a fish and the double circulation of a mammal.

  6. The single circulatory system: is a type of circulatory system in which blood passes through the heart once before it goes to the body. It is found in animals such as fish.
    Fishes have a single circuit for blood flow and a two-chambered heart that has only a single atrium and a single ventricle. The atrium collects blood that has returned from the body, while the ventricle pumps the blood to the gills where gaseous exchange occurs and the blood is re-oxygenated; this is called gill circulation. The blood then continues through the rest of the body before arriving back at the atrium; this is called systemic circulation.
    This unidirectional flow of blood produces a gradient of oxygenated to deoxygenated blood around the fish's systemic circuit. The result is a limit in the amount of oxygen that can reach some of the organs and tissues of the body, reducing the overall metabolic capacity of fish.

    The double circulatory system is the type of circulatory system in which blood passes through the heart twice before completing a full circuit. It is found in the body of mammals and birds.
    In this type of circulation, the pulmonary circulation is separate from systemic circulation. Pulmonary circulation carries deoxygenated blood away from the heart to the lungs and returns oxygenated blood to the heart. Systemic circulation carries oxygenated blood away from the heart to the body, and returns deoxygenated blood back to the heart.

  7. List advantages of the double circulatory system over the single circulatory system and differences between the close circulatory system and open circulatory system.

    • Blood flows into and from the body at relatively higher pressure therefore, blood can be pumped for a long distance.
    • Oxygen and nutrients plus hormones are delivered to tissues at a higher speed than in the single circulatory system.
    • Waste products are removed at a relatively higher speed from tissues to excretory organs.

    • Closed circulatory systemOpen circulatory system
      Present in annelids and vertebratesPresent in invertabrates
      Blood does not bathe the cellsBlood directly bathes the cells
      There is a muscular heartThere is no muscular heart but nodes as the simple heart
      High blood pressureLower pressure
      Blood contains haemoglobinThere is no haemoglobin
      They have bloodthey have no blood but a carring liquid
      Examples, earthworms, fish, frogs and human beings.Examples, insects and orchids e.g, spiders, scorpions and harvestrons.

Rationale:

All animals except small animals need a circulatory system to transport substances from one cell to a cell because the cell has to be provided with some of the nutrients, oxygen and to remove some waste products from it such as carbon and nitrogenous waste products. The heart acts as the pump for the blood. Even when the body is at rest, this incredible organ pumps more than 6,000-7,500 litres of blood daily. The heart works closely with blood vessels which convey blood to the various body organs. If a cell is not provided with nutrients and oxygen (blood), the cell will not survive.

Prerequisite/ Previous knowledge:

  • The function of the heart
  • Cell specialisation (Cells, tissues, organs, system)

Learning Materials:

Demo of hot water supply system in a house, Video on circulation of blood, diagrams of grasshopper, earthworm and human circulatory system.

Reference Materials:

Biology A New Approach For Senior Secondary Schools and Colleges By E. O. Egho,
Modern Biology for SSS By Kucy I. Aunwa et-al
Internet.


Lesson Development:

STAGETEACHER'S ACTIVITYLEARNER'S ACTIVITYLEARNING POINTS
INTRODUCTION
full class session (5mins)
The teacher asks learners to place their right palm firmly on the left side of your chest and ask learners:
  • What do you feel?
  • What is the cause of the beat you felt?
  • What happens when the heart beats?
    Learners response to teacher's question.
    • The beating of the heart.
    • The beat is caused when the muscles of the heart relax, and when the muscles of the heart contract.
    • The heart receives and pumps blood.
    Confirming previous knowledge.
    INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITY
    full class session (5mins)
    The teacher gives learners two diagrams to study;
    a hot water supply system in a typical house and circulation of blood in the body.
    The teacher explains to learners that in the hot water supply system the blue pipes in the diagram convey cold water whereas the red pipes convey hot water.
    The teacher asks learners, in the blood circulatory system diagram,
    1. what is the part that transports water and mineral salts
    2. based on the diagrams above, predict how the circulatory system of human beings works.


    Learners observe the two diagrams and deduce the circulatory system of human beings.The human circulatory system is responsible for pumping blood throughout the body. The heart acts as the pump for the blood.
    Developing the idea of the circulatory system from the two diagrams.
    Development 2
    (10 minutes)
    Activity 2 :
    The teacher explain to learners that circulation can either be a closed circulatory system or an open circulatory system.The teacher provides learners two diagrams;
    1. the circulatory system in grasshopper and
    2. circulatory system in the earthworm, and ask learners to explain using the diagrams the differences between open and close circulatory system.
    3. Advantages of the close circulatory system over the open circulatory system.
    4. Teachers supervise and guide students to list the differences between the close circulatory system and the open circulatory system.


    The learners form working groups.
    Learners expected response.
    1. In the open circulatory system, the blood is in contact with body cells while in the closed circulatory system the blood remains enclosed in a system of vessels.

    2. The advantages of a closed circulatory system over an open circulatory system.
      • It helps control the distribution of different sub-systems in different parts of the body.
      • the pressure of blood in it is high hence, blood circulates faster and hence transports substances to and from the tissues faster than in the open system.
      • it has control of oxygen distribution and delivery.
    Close circulatory systemOpen circulatory system
    Present in annelids and vertebratesPresent in invertabrates
    Blood does not bath the cellsBlood directly bathes the cells
    There is a muscular heartThere is no muscular heart but nodes as simple heart
    High blood pressureLower pressure
    Blood contains haemoglobinThere is no haemoglobin
    They have bloodthey have no blood but a carring liquid
    Examples, earthworms, fish, frogs and human beings.Examples, insects and orchids e.g, spiders, scorpions and harvestrons.
    Open and close circulatory system
    Development 3
    (5 minutes)
    The teacher gives learners two diagrams to study in a group and ask learners what they observe about the type of circulation in each of the diagrams and what possible name or type of close circulation could it be?


    The teacher guide learners to list the advantages of a double circulatory system over the single circulatory system


    Learners expected response.
    • In the first diagram, the blood flows once through the heart before it goes to the body, this could be a single circulatory system.
    • In the second diagram, the blood passes through the heart twice before completing a full circuit. this could be a double circulatory system.

    • The Learners list the advantages of a double circulatory system over a single circulatory system.
      • Blood flows into and from the body at relatively higher pressure therefore, blood can be pumped for a long distance.
      • Oxygen and nutrients plus hormones are delivered to tissues at a higher speed than in the single circulatory system.
      • Waste products are removed at a relatively higher speed from tissues to excretory organs.
    Single and double circulatory system.
    EVALUATION
    (5 minutes)
    The teacher evaluates the lesson by posing questions;
    1. What is the circulatory system?
    2. Why do we need a circulatory system?
    3. What are the types of the circulatory system?
    4. What is a single and double circulatory system?
    1. The circulatory system also called the cardiovascular or vascular system (structure of the heart) is an organ that permits blood to circulate.
      1. To deliver nutrients and oxygen to the body cell.
      2. To remove waste products from the body, such as carbon (iv) oxide, nitrogenous waste products.
      1. Closed circulatory system.
      2. Open circulatory system.
      1. The single circulatory system is a type of circulatory system in which blood passes through the heart once before it goes to the body.
      2. The double circulatory system is the type of circulatory system in which blood passes through the heart twice before completing a full circuit.
    Asking the learners questions to assess the achievement of the set objectives.
    CONCLUSION
    5 mins
    The teacher consolidates the main points and corrects any misconceptions.Learners consolidate the key areas of drawing and labelling plan diagrams.The main points are no shading, continuous lines, use of sharp pencil and to draw what is observed.
    ASSIGNMENT
    1. What is the alternative means of transport in animals without a circulatory system?
    2. Why is blood important as a means of transport for larger animals?
    3. Flying insects such as flies beat their wings at a great speed despite having an open circulatory system. Explain.
    Learners answer other questionsImproving their level of understanding

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