Lesson Note

Lesson Note on Basic Science

Subject: Basic Science

Theme: You and Energy

Topic: Force

Sub Topic: Frictional Force

Date: dd/mm/yyyy

Class: Basic 6

Duration: 35 Minutes

No of Learners: 30

Learning Objectives:

By the end of the lesson learners should be able to:
  1. Say what friction means.

  2. Friction is a force that opposes or prevents the motion of two objects in contact with each other. Friction is a kind of force that makes objects in motion stop.

  3. Mention five areas where friction occurs in our daily lives.

    1. Rubbing/ Clapping our hands.
    2. Pounding in a mortar.
    3. Ironing clothes.
    4. Grinding pepper with two stones with flat surfaces.
    5. Smoothening planks with carpenters tool.

  4. Describe how friction can be increased or decreased.

    1. Smooth surfaces decrease friction because movement is easy while rough surfaces increase friction because movement is slow and difficult.
    2. Sliding objects increase friction while rolling objects decrease friction

  5. State at least two advantages of friction.

    1. It leads to producing good finished product e.g pounding.
    2. It enables us to stop our vehicles when in motion.

  6. State three disadvantages of friction.

    1. It causes a change in the shaps of some objects.
    2. It causes clothes to wear out..
    3. It can cause continued constipation which could lead to the pile and serious health challenges if food is eaten without drinking water.

Rationale:

Frictional force is very important in our daily lives. Sometimes it helps us but can also serve as a hindrance but we cannot move if friction does not exist or if by any means we started moving we would not be able to stop.

Prerequisite/ Previous knowledge:

Pupils have learnt about force and if effects, such as:

  • It produces a change in the position of objects,
  • It stops moving objects and changes the shape of objects.

Learning Materials:

Bottled water, rough surface, piece of the carton as smooth surface and a container filled with gravels, some balls, olive oil, soapy water and Vaseline.

Reference Materials:

Basic Science and technology for Primary School Pupils Book 6 by P. Asun and others.


Lesson Development:

STAGE
TEACHER'S ACTIVITY
LEARNER'S ACTIVITY
LEARNING POINTS
Introduction full class session (5mins) The teacher asks learners questions based on the previous topic, force.
  • What is force?
  • Mention there effects of force?
Learners expected response:
  • Force is a push or a pull
  • The force that causes objects to move or stop.
  • Force also causes objects to change their original shapes.
Revising the previous lesson on the force, by stating what force is, reviewing its effects and connecting it to the topic "Friction".
DEVELOPMENT Step 1. Group Work (7mins) The teacher guides the learners to form four groups and ask them to choose their leaders and secretaries. Learners choose their group leaders and secretaries. Inculcating leadership skills, competitive spirit, cooperation, teamwork and a sense of responsibility among learners.
Give each group the rough sliding and the smooth sliding surfaces to move the bottles water and container of gravel on them and state their findings. Learners perform the activity in their various groups, observe and state their findings. On the rough sliding surface, the container moves slowly and even stopped but on the smooth surface, the container moved fast. Finding how easy or hard objects can move on rough and smooth surfaces.
Let the learners state what stopped or prevented the container from moving forward. Introduce the concept of friction. Learners explain that a force stopped the movement of the container. Developing ideas on the concept of friction and introducing the topic friction.
The teacher asks the pupils what they think stopped the movement of the container on the rough surface. It is a kind of force that opposes or prevent movement between two surfaces in contact called friction. Write the topic on the board. Learners expected response. Learners reflect on what stops/ prevents objects from moving further. This could be called friction. Stating the meaning of friction.
Learners are asked to say what friction is in their own words. Friction can also be defined as the rubbing of one object or surface against another. Friction is the resistance between surfaces in contact. Confirming the meaning of friction.
Step 2 Full class session (5mins) The teacher asks the learners to state some other areas in their daily lives where friction occurs. Learners identify areas in their daily lives where friction occurs:
  • Rubbing/ Clapping our hands.
  • Pounding in a mortar.
  • Smoothening planks with carpenters tools.
Mentioning instances of the application of friction in our daily lives.
Step 3 Group Work(7mins) Learners are lead to roll the bottled water and the container of gravel on a smooth and rough sliding surface in their groups and state their findings. Learners observe the differences in the movement of objects on rough and smooth surfaces.
  • On a smooth surface, movement is fast, friction is less.
  • On rough surfaces movement is slow, friction is more.
Comparing how difficult or fast movement on different surfaces can be.
Learners are led to mention three things that can be done to reduce friction. Friction is more on sliding objects and it is less on rolling objects. Learners mention the things that can be done to reduce friction:
  • Applying lubricants such as Vaseline, Grease, Engine oil, Olive oil and drinking water.
Identifying ways of reducing friction.
Learners are led to apply examples of how to reduce friction to their daily lives. Learners identify other instances of how to reduce friction in our daily lives as follows:
  • The sole of a shoe on a slippery surface.
  • Oiling bicycle part and sewing machine.
  • Oiling your generation
  • Rubbing pomade on our bodies.
Confirming the ways of reducing friction and applying it to our daily lives.
Step 4. Full class session (6mins) The teacher guides the learners to state the advantages/ disadvantages of friction with the following questions:
  • Of what use is friction to Us?
Learners state the advantages of friction:
  • It leads to producing good finished products.
  • It enables us to stop our vehicles while in motion.
Stating the advantages of friction.
What are the negative effects of friction on our daily lives? Disadvantages:
  • It causes a change in the shape of some objects.
  • Causes clothes to wear out.
  • It can cause continuous constipation if food is taken without water.
  • It can cause death.
Identifying the disadvantages of friction.
Evaluation. Full class session (3 mins) Ask the following questions to evaluate the achievement of the lesson. Learners expected response: Confirming the achievement of the set objectives.
What is friction? Friction is the force that makes objects in motion stop movement.
Mention three areas where friction occurs in your daily lives? Three areas where friction occurs in our daily lives.
  • Clapping our hands.
  • Applying bicycle brake.
  • Pounding in a mortar.
Describe how friction can be increased or decreased? Friction can be increased by rolling objects on rough surfaces and also be reduced by applying lubricants such as grease, engine oil, olive oil and water.
Of what use is friction to us? Advantages of friction:
  • It leads to producing good finished products.
  • It enables us to stop our vehicles when in motion.

  • Disadvantages:
  • It causes a change in the shap of some objects.
  • It causes clothes to wear out.
  • It can cause continuous constipation if food is taken without water.
  • It can cause death.
Conclusion, full class session (3mins) Ask learners to state the ways of applying friction in their daily lives.

Let the learners copy the answers started under learners activities as notes
Learners expected response. Applying bicycle brake while riding.

Learners copy the notes given into their exercise books
Acquiring calligraphy skills.
ASSIGNMENT
  1. Explain the use of friction in using rubber to erase a pencil mark
  2. How may friction be reduced between surfaces?
Learners answer other questions Improving their level of understanding of Frictional force.
Worksheet on Friction

You are provided with the following materials: a Swan water bottle filled with water block surface, a piece of the carton as a smooth surface and a container filled with gravels.

Carry out the following activities:

A) Predict how hard or easy the movement will be if you use your fingertip to push the container and the swam water bottle on the different surfaces.

B) Cayy out the activity with the materials given to find out the results of your predictions.


Status Surface Prediction of Friction Hard/ Easy Results
1) A container filled with gravels Block
2) A container filled with gravel Piece of carton
3) Swam water bottle standing (sliding) Desk
4) Swam water bottle laying (rolling) Desk

State reasons for the difference in friction in the above activity
  1. Compare status 1 and 2 in activity above
  2. Compare status 3 and 4 in activity above