ELECTRONICS

WAEC SYLLABUS ON BASIC ELECTRONICS

PREAMBLE

The syllabus is intended to equip candidates with broad understanding of the technology ofmanufacturing, maintenance and repair of domestic and industrial equipment. It will also offercandidates sufficient knowledge and skills to form valuable foundation for electronic-relatedvocation or pursue further educational qualifications.
Candidates will be expected to cover all the topics.

OBJECTIVES

The objective of the syllabus is to test candidates:
(1) knowledge and understanding of the basic concepts and principles of electronics;
(2) ability to use simple electronic devices to build and test simple electronic systems;
(3) problem-solving skills through the use of the design process;
(4) preparedness for further work in electronics;
(5) knowledge in entrepreneurial skills and work ethics.

SCHEME OF EXAMINATION


There will be three papers, Papers 1, 2 and 3, all of which must be taken. Papers 1 and 2 shall becomposite paper to be taken at one sitting.

PAPER 1:

will consist of fifty multiple-choice objective questions all of which are to beanswered in 1 hour for 50 marks.

PAPER 2:

will consist of seven short-structured questions. Candidates will be required toanswer any five in 1 hour for 50 marks.

PAPER 3:

will be a practical paper of two experiments both of which are to be carried out bycandidates in 3 hours for 100 marks.

Alternative to Practical Test

lternatively, in the event that materials for the actual practical test cannot beacquired, the Council may consider testing theoretically, candidates’ level ofacquisition of the practical skills prescribed in the syllabus. For this alternative test,there will be two compulsory questions to be answered within 2 hours for 100marks.


DETAILED SYLLABUS

TOPICSCONTENTSNOTES

1. ELECTRON EMISSION

Types of electron emission
Application of electron emission
Qualitative treatment should include :
Thermionic emission; photoemission;
secondary emission and field emission.Relate it to diode, triode, tetrode, pentode, andcathode ray tube.

2. MEASURING INSTRUMENTS

Concepts of measuring instrument
Principles of operation and protection ofmeasuring instruments
Qualitative treatment only which shouldinclude:
Classification – analogue and digital
Types and uses of multimeter, voltmeter,ammeter, ohmmeter, oscilloscope etc.

3. SEMICONDUCTOR

Concepts of semiconductor
Semiconductor materials (silicon,germanium etc.)
Doping
Formation of p-type and n-type
semiconductors.
Qualitative treatment only.
SEMICONDUCTOR DIODES
Concept of diodes
Biasing of diodes
Treatment should include operationalprinciples of diodes
Type of diodes
Diode ratings – voltage, current and powerApplication of diodes
Construction of a simple circuit using aP-N junction diode
Practical demonstration of I-V characteristicsof P-N junction diode in the forward andreverse bias modes.
TRANSISTORS
Concepts of transistor
Meaning of transistor, biasing of transistor,Uses and advantages.
BJT characteristics
Advantages of transistor over valves
Formation, function and principles ofOperation.
Transistor as a switch, inverter, an amplifier
Verification of BJT characteristics.
Input, output and transfer characteristicsTransfer configuration
Qualitative treatment only
– formation, functions and principles ofoperation
Advantages over discrete components
Advantages of MOSFET over BJT
OTHER SEMICONDUCTORDEVICES
Thermistor, diac, triac and thyristor, etc
Circuit symbols
Principles of operation
Applications.
INTEGRATED CIRCUITS Application of integrated circuitsExplanation of RAM, ROM and EPROM

4. CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

ELECTRIC CURRENT
Structure of atom
Conductors and insulators
Direct and alternating current
Sources of direct current
Sources of alternating current
Qualitative treatment only
Uses of conductors and insulators
Differences between direct and alternatingcurrent
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VOLTAGE,CURRENT AND RESISTANCE
Current, voltage and resistance.
Ohm’s law
Simple calculation of current, voltage andresistance.
Construction of simple circuit to demonstrateOhm’s law
ELECTRIC POWER
Concept of electric power
Relationship between power, current andvoltage.
Other formulae for finding electricalpower
Calculation of electric power in a givencircuit
Qualitative and quantitative treatments
CIRCUIT COMPONENTS
Types of resistors, capacitors andinductors
Symbols, signs and unit of measurement
Colour coding and rating of resistors andcapacitors
Practical determination of the value of a fixedcolour code resistor
ELECTRIC CIRCUIT
Electric circuit
Circuit boards
Circuit arrangement: series, parallel,series-parallel
Calculation on circuit arrangement
Carry out practical wiring of different circuitarrangement
ALTERNATING CURRENTCIRCUITS
R-L-C circuits
Generator principles
Qualitative and quantitative treatments shouldinclude
- Concepts of capacitive reactance,
inductive reactance and impedance
- RL and RC circuits
- Calculations of capacitive reactance(XC) and inductive reactance (XL)
- Resonance frequencyPrinciples of operation of an a.c. generator
POWER IN A.C. CIRCUITSQualitative and quantitative treatments of:
- Power and power triangle
- Power factor and its correction
- Advantages and disadvantages ofpower factor correction
- Calculation of power factor
- Q-factor and bandwidth

5. AMPLIFIERS

VOLTAGE AMPLIFIERSBiasing methods. Treatment of the transistor assingle stage.
Common-emitter amplifier.
Frequency response of an amplifier
Advantages and disadvantages of negativefeedback
POWER AMPLIFIERS Classification: Class A, Class B, Class AB,Class C, application, power gain, methods ofbiasing and efficiency.
Classification of power gain.
PUSH-PULL AMPLIFIERS Qualitative treatment including matched andcomplementary pairs.
OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS Properties of an ideal operational amplifier
Inverting and non-inverting operationalamplifiers(op-amps)
Types of operational amplifiers
Applications of op-amps
Simple calculations involving inverting, noninverting,summing amplifiers and voltagefollower

6. POWER SUPPLY

D.C. POWER SUPPLY UNITDry cells, solar cells, cadium cells,accumulators
Batteries: Rechargeable and non-rechargeable
RECTIFICATIONQualitative treatment should include:
- Rectification, regulation
- Types of voltage regulator e.g. diac,triac, thyristor, series voltage regulator,transistorized electronic voltageregulator
Functions of each block

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7. OSCILLATORS, MULTIVIBRATORS AND DIGITAL BASICS

OSCILLATORSDifference between positivefeedback(oscillator) and negative feedback(amplifier)
Principles of an oscillator
Types of oscillators: Hartley, Colpitts, phaseshift, tuned (load and crystal) oscillatorsAdvantages of negative feedback
Calculations involving negative feedbacks
Block diagram of an oscillator
Application of oscillator
MULTIVIBRATORS(Non-sinusoidal)
Principles of operation and applications
Types of multivibrators(monostable, bistable and astable)
DIGITAL BASICS
Number system
Different number system e.g. binary, octal andhexadecimal
Simple calculation in binary number
Conversion from one base to another and viceversa
Addition and subtraction of binary numbers
Logic gates(Combinational) Qualitative treatments of AND, OR, NOT,NOR and NAND
Logic gates using switching arrangements,truth table and Boolean expression

8. COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS, TRANSDUCERS AND SENSORS

Electromagnetic waves.
characteristics of radio waves
Principles of radio waves
Relationship between velocity frequency andwave length
Meaning of radio communication
Modulation and demodulation
Advantages of F.M. over A.M.
Phase modulation (mention only)
Stages of radio receiver Types of radio receivers
Fault detection in radio receiver Advantages of superheterodyne over directinput receiver
Use faulty radio and detect and repair faultProject work on construction and designing ofa simple radio receiver
Transmitters and receivers Block diagrams of A.M. and F.M. transmitters
Block diagrams of A.M. and F.M.
superheterodyne radio receiversBlock diagrams of mono and colour
T.V.chrome receivers
Functions of each block and direction of signalflow
Qualitative treatment of T.V. standard(NTSC,PAL,SECAM,BIG)
Methods of Communication Fibre optics, microwave, satellite, cellularphone, digital communication network, etc.
Transducers and Sensors Meaning of transducers and sensors
Principles of operation
Types and uses to include: Acoustic, dynamicelectrostatic, electromagnetic, capacitive,pressure sensor, photoelectric, proximitysensor etc.
Thermistor as a temperature sensing device
Acoustic transducer Qualitative treatments only
Types of acoustic transducers e.g. loudspeaker,microphone, earphone
Principles of operation and function
Application of acoustic transducers

9. CONTROL SYSTEM

Control UnitQualitative treatment only
- Types of control circuits(open andclose loop)
- Principle of operation of open loop andclose loop
SERVO MECHANISM Qualitative treatment only
- Meaning
- Principle of operation, types, uses andapplication e.g. in car, doors, boothsetc.

10. MAGNETIC AND ELECTRIC FIELDS, ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION/TRANSFORMERS

Electromagnetic fieldTrace magnetic lines of force current-carryingconductor
Lenz’s and Faraday’s laws.
Electromagnetic induction Definitions only
Self and mutual induction Calculations involving energy stored in a coil
Applications of electromagnetism
Electric bell, solenoid, loudspeaker, buzzer,moving-coil instrument, moving-ironinstrument, earphone and microphone

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We provide educational resources/materials, curriculum guide, syllabus, scheme of work, lesson note & plan, waec, jamb, O-level & advance level GCE lessons/tutorial classes, on various topics, subjects, career, disciplines & department etc. for all the Class of Learners